A Quantitative Summary of The Listening Program (TLP) Efficacy Studies: What Areas Were Found to Improve by TLP Intervention?

Occupational Therapy International

Vargas, S., & Lucker, J. R. (2016).

Occupational Therapy International, 23(2), 206-217.

This systematic review investigates the effect of a music-based auditory stimulation program, The Listening Program (TLP) by Advanced Brain Technologies (ABT), to improve functional cognitive-communication, psychological, and motor outcomes in individuals with a variety of disorders (e.g., attention deficit disorder, auditory processing disorder, autism spectrum, developmental delay, learning disabilities).

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Group studies with pre- and post-treatment data. Excludes single-subject case studies.


Only one study examined the effects of The Listening Program on children with auditory processing disorders and reported improved auditory skills (e.g., auditory sensitivity and auditory processing) and performance in some academic areas. The authors noted that the analysis was based "on the specific measures of the SCAN [Test for Auditory Processing Disorders in Children] and did not look at the specific profile of [auditory processing disorders] APD identified for each subject" (p. 212).

Findings demonstrated The Listening Program to have a small effect size of 0.41 in language and educational areas (e.g., auditory-verbal memory, oral and written language skills, language comprehension) in children with varying developmental disabilities. This small effect size indicated some improvement was observed, but authors were only able to hypothesize the reason why The Listening Program intervention led to that improvement.