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A Forum on Pediatric Hearing Health Care Disparities
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 9 Perspectives course includes three articles from a forum on pediatric hearing health care disparities. The articles discuss barriers to follow-up in Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs; systematic evaluation of family barriers to care; and the principles and implementation of trauma-informed care in pediatric hearing health care.
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Hearing Loss in Children: ADHD, Physical Activity, and Medical Education
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The three articles in this SIG 9 Perspectives course focus on parent-reported ADHD behaviors, fatigue, and language in children who are deaf and hard of hearing; physical activity in children with hearing loss; and massive open online courses for critical medical education related to children with hearing loss.
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What’s New in Ototoxicity Management?
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
Ototoxic medications and chemical agents in the workplace can put individuals' hearing and vestibular health at risk for permanent injury. Proactive ototoxicity management (OtoM) strategies aim to minimize exposure, avoid onset of symptoms, provide ongoing monitoring, and manage auditory and vestibular changes as the clinical needs of the patient evolve. During a 2021 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Special Interest Groups Open House, members of the International Ototoxicity Management Group discussed how best to integrate OtoM into routine clinical practice, what tools to use, and what special considerations need to be understood to best support patients and their families. Here, we have summarized their viewpoints to encourage widespread adoption of improved OtoM services for at-risk individuals. The field of audiology needs to move to a place where we better understand the full extent of ototoxicity and can agree on expanding minimum guidelines that can be implemented more universally to mitigate, detect, and manage the damage from ototoxic exposures. Only recently has our field seen a therapeutic drug that can protect against ototoxicity; however, the population served is restricted only to children receiving treatment for nonmetastatic carcinoma. This is hopefully just the beginning of future therapeutic interventions to come, but, in the meantime, ototoxicity resulting from other medications in different patient populations and chemical agents persists.
Dysphagia: Gelatin-Based Desserts, Thickening, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 13 articles underscore the importance of being up to date of dysphagia intervention as the diagnosis has many complexities in assessment and treatment. Larsen et al. surmise that current characteristics and physiological rationale may overestimate the skills required for gelatin-based desserts and inappropriately classify them as nontransitional foods. Therefore, as with all products, individual gelatin-based desserts should be tested at the time of presentation to the patient. Mancopes et al. discuss the importance of strategies for facilitating safe and functional bottle feeding in children with dysphagia include selecting nipples that reduce flow rate, pacing, altered positioning, and thickening liquid consistencies. Their study aims to determine the impact of slightly thick liquids on swallowing through retrospective review of a convenience sample of clinical videofluoroscopies (VFSS) from 60 bottle-fed children (21 male, mean age 9.9 months) referred due to suspected aspiration. Garand et al. perform a retrospective analysis of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using modified barium swallow studies and recommend use of functional scales to help evaluate and treat this special population.
Neurodiversity-Affirming Practices
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 1 activity focuses on neurodiversity-affirming practices. The first article provides an outline of what neurodiversity is, why it is central to the provision of evidence-based practice, and how to educate speech-language pathologists on the need for neurodiversity-affirming care. The second article discusses research design and reporting in autism intervention research that should be considered by intervention providers. The third article examines the knowledge, experience, and training of schoolbased professionals and their familiarity with early communication access for autistic children. The fourth article discusses a study that investigates themes in spoken narratives produced by autistic adults whose genders are marginalized in comparison to those of cisgender men. The fifth article describes gestalt language processing as one of the natural styles of language acquisition in children and a protocol for assessing the language acquisition of autistic and non-autistic individuals who utilize a gestalt process to acquire language.
Evidence-Based Practices in Literacy for Word Reading, Morphology, & Vocabulary
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 1 activity focuses on evidence-based practices in literacy related to word reading, morphology, and vocabulary. The first article highlights the relationship between literacy and vocabulary learning and provides a tutorial on treatment options for vocabulary-based interventions for children with identified vocabulary deficits. The second article describes the developmental sequence of alphabet knowledge and demonstrates how to address this knowledge within three different service delivery modules. The third article explains the importance of targeting morphology in schoolbased speech and language therapy to support the literacy development of students with developmental language disorders. The final article describes the skills required for successful word reading and outlines how a speech-language pathologist can carry out an evidence-based approach for both assessment and intervention.
A Learning Exercise in Pediatric Hearing: Dichotic Listening, Literacy Screener for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children, and Fathers' Linguistic Input
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The three authors of these SIG 9 articles discuss topics relevant to pediatric hearing and hearing loss. Though the topics are varied, they all point to the importance of continued research in listening, literacy, and paternal linguistic input for children who are deaf and hard of hearing (DHH).
Hispanic/Latina Student Perspectives on Mindfulness
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this SIG 20 activity, Medina and Mead share a study of Hispanic/Latina SLP graduate students’ perceptions of mindfulness. Participants in this study discuss the benefits of mindfulness and their willingness to practice; however, stigmatizing beliefs and lack of education about mindfulness within their cultural communities need to be addressed. Readers of this article will gain a better understanding of how to promote mindfulness in future speech-language pathologists.
Pediatric Voice Case Studies
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this SIG 3 activity, experts in pediatric voice disorders present a series of interactive cases to help speech-language pathologists develop their knowledge and skills completing voice evaluation and treatment planning for children with bilateral benign vocal fold lesions, unilateral vocal fold paralysis, and sulcus vocalis.
Amplification Effects on the Acoustic Change Complex in Older Adults With Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
As a step toward developing an electrophysiologic method for validating the speech feature discrimination benefits of amplification, the article in this SIG 6 activity evaluates the effect of stimulus level and amplification on the acoustic change complex in adults with sensorineural hearing loss.
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Factors in Adult Dysphagia: Thickened Liquids, Facial Burns, Head & Neck Cancer
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This trio of SIG 13 articles provides information regarding managing and treating dysphagia with adult patients. First, Abrams and co-authors underscore the importance of hydration and discovered that individuals consuming thickened liquids are often at risk for dehydration. Factors to increase fluid intake through different strategies are discussed. Next, Arguello and Kerr discuss the mechanism of a facial burn injury and how it may cause functional impairments that can be directly impacted through early intervention utilizing speech-language pathology services. Finally, Warner and colleagues completed a pilot study investigating the prevalence of pretreatment dysphagia in oncologic patients and individual factors influencing post treatment dysphagia.
Implementation of Augmentative and Alternative Communication: Current Issues
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 12 Perspectives articles offer opportunities to extend augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) clinical practice through the inclusion of critical topic areas. They describe survey results and recommendations on disaster preparedness for SLPs to support people who use AAC; propose strategies for clinicians to create a “friendship mindset” in AAC assessment and implementation; offer strategies for designing and implementing Visual Scene Displays (VSDs) as a component within AAC systems for clients across the lifespan; and describe how perspectives of adult part-time AAC communicators support assessment and intervention with beginning communicators who have intermittent, unreliable, and inconsistent speech.
Impact of Student Clinicians on SLPs’ Productivity in Medical Settings and Graduate Students' Perceptions of Simulated Experiences During the Pandemic
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 11 Perspectives activity addresses the productivity impact of SLPs supervising student clinicians in medical settings and explores graduate students' perceptions of their experiences participating in simulated learning experiences during the pandemic.
Intervention & Assessment of Developmental Language Disorders in CLD Populations
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 1 activity focuses on best practices, perspectives, and challenges in the assessment and intervention of developmental language disorders (DLD) in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) populations. The first article provides clinicians and researchers with resources to interpret and use common standardized language assessments in English for CLD school-age youth. The second article introduces the online program, Video- and App-Based Language Instruction (VALI), to increase caregivers’ use of language-promoting strategies in everyday activities with Spanish infants and toddlers. The third article discusses how to most effectively treat bilingual children and plan treatment to promote progression in both languages.
Digital Resources in Auditory Rehabilitation: Unlocking the Potential
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In the rising digital era, and especially since the pandemic, implementation of telehealth and provision of auditory rehabilitation (AR) using digital platforms have notably increased. This has changed the outlook of service provision by audiologists and speech-language pathologists alike. Digital platforms have the potential to positively impact AR practices by improving accessibility of rehabilitation services as well as by facilitating a more effective way to share resources with both professionals and end users. This SIG 7 activity includes two articles about the accessibility and effectiveness of digital platforms to provide AR services for both adults and children with hearing difficulties. The first article discusses the differences in the distribution strategy, users’ experience, and satisfaction for two digital platforms (a static website and an active blog) offering AR materials for professionals. Their study concludes that social media–focused active distribution is effective because it results in more total traffic, a greater number of users, more frequent access, and an overall high level of satisfaction with the quality of information and resources. The second article discusses the details of a Zoom-based telepractice initial evaluation protocol used by speech-language pathologists serving children who are hard of hearing and their families. This clinical protocol was designed to synchronously share resources and questionnaires with family members of children who are hard of hearing. Authors suggest that providing AR services through telepractice facilitates high-quality diagnostics and counseling to the same extent as that of in-person diagnostic sessions.
Cluttering: Preadolescence to Community Leaders
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this SIG 4 activity, learners will read three peer-reviewed articles centered on cluttering in preadolescent through adult speakers. The first article is a case study of a preadolescent with cluttering. In this paper, the authors highlight brain development during adolescence, adolescent cognitive and emotional development, and the effects of a therapy approach based on objective speech measures. The second article is a research study concerned with disfluency clusters produced by adults with cluttering in natural conversations. The authors describe how disfluency clusters are affected by the nature of the relationship between speakers. The last article presents qualitative data from a focus group of adults with cluttering who have emerged as community leaders. Their reflections include recommendations for listeners and support groups, self management, and their thoughts on labels and acronyms.
Prevalence and Identification of Communication Disorders in Japan, Guatemala, & Global Contexts
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This course focuses on the prevalence and identification of communication disorders in Japan, Guatemala, and global contexts. The first study, conducted in Japan, examines the prediction of special educational needs in children who stutter using a screening test for three neurodevelopmental disorders. The second study explores clinical practices for speech sound disorders in Guatemala, particularly the use of nonspeech oral motor exercises. The third study provides insights into the frequency of aphasia worldwide.
An International Perspective on Clinical Research in SLP Cleft Care
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 5 activity includes three articles from a forum aimed at sharing research conducted in clinical settings around the world. Two research articles analyzed surgical and parent-led therapy approaches for improved speech and resonance outcomes. A third tutorial described characteristics needed in an evaluation to analyze clinically obtained data for research purposes. The first research article is based in Brazil. It demonstrates positive long-term outcomes in children with hypernasality/velopharyngeal dysfunction using the Sommerlad procedure of palatal re-repair to treat residual velopharyngeal insufficiency. The reported scores were in the categories of: “hypernasality, global impression of velopharyngeal function, and/or active speech symptoms.” Overall, this study shows significant improvement in a large percentage of children, with less effect on older individuals ages 17–22 years. The second research article includes parents from a previously published twocenter study in Ireland and the United Kingdom. The aim was to analyze parents’ experiences with parent-led articulation therapy (PLAT) following in-depth training. After a detailed outline is provided regarding inclusion and teaching of the participants, four main themes are identified. These include growth of parents, undertaking PLAT, changes in children, and the future. Ultimately, the majority of parents are in favor of a parent-led therapy approach with the caveat that in-depth training and direct supervision from a speech-language pathologist is needed. The third article, a tutorial, addresses the research–clinical practice gap. A description is provided of a perceptual speech assessment protocol for cleft palate speech, to enable clinical data to be used for research purposes. The article provides detail related to determining the most appropriate standardized assessment tools as well as the best ways to collect and analyze this data. Further details related to implementation within the clinical setting are outlined. The data is easily accessible through networking between cleft teams and Sweden’s national cleft lip and palate registry, making retrospective research attainable in a clinical setting.
A Review of Recommendations for Families Raising Multilingual Children With Autism and Examining Types of Support Received by Multicultural Individuals Who Stutter
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 14 activity reviews recommendations for families raising multilingual children with autism and examines types of support received by multicultural individuals who stutter. Topics include (a) a review of recommendations for families raising multilingual children with autism and (b) concepts of family support in stuttering.
Health Care Utilization Disparities Among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Patients and the Potential Role of Audiologists in Screening for Cognitive Impairment
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This course contains two articles: one that discusses health care disparities and the need for better communication access for people with hearing loss, and one that addresses the potential role of audiologists in screening for cognitive impairment.
Building Cultural Responsivity in Speech and Language Services for Professionals
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The theme for this SIG 14 activity is building cultural responsivity in speech and language services for professionals using simulations and factors related to college major selection in communication sciences and disorders. Topics include (a) using simulations for professional development and (b) factors related to college major selection in communication sciences and disorders.
Frontiers in Motor Speech Disorders: What’s New in Assessment and Treatment
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this SIG 2 activity, participants explore innovative articles regarding a range of topics in the assessment and treatment of motor speech disorders. The first article describes a case of anarthria in which the speech-language pathologist thoroughly described the patient’s motor speech presentation, thereby contributing to his overall neurologic diagnosis. The second article examines the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a promising method of eliciting behavior change through brain stimulation, on the speech of individuals with Parkinson’s disease. The third article explores the speech and language profiles of children with apraxia of speech as their primary diagnosis, as compared to children with other concomitant diagnoses.
Clinical Applications of Meta-Therapy in Speech-Language Pathology
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
Meta-therapy is an integral pillar of clinical practice; however, the lack of formal training in this area often makes the concept and application of meta-therapy elusive to clinicians. The goal of this SIG 3 activity is to disseminate how meta-therapy can be effectively utilized in the clinical domains of voice disorders, fluency, dysphagia, and cognitive communication and aphasia.
A Collection of Perspectives in Speech-Language Pathology
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 19 activity bundles four articles providing perspectives on a broad variety of topics in speech-language pathology. First, Bunta and Gósy discuss how speech-language pathologists and audiologists could utilize acoustic analyses in their clinical practice. They provide specific examples ranging from aphasia to speech sound disorders and various linguistic contexts to demonstrate the utility of these tools. The authors suggest acoustic analyses can be a valued supplement in clinical evaluations. Next, Diekhoff and Lulich examine speech-language pathology students’ conceptualization and description of American rhotic Sounds. They discuss the differences in descriptions of rhotic sounds by students who had experience with those sounds compared to those who did not have experience with those sounds. The role of direct instruction regarding rhotic shapes is highlighted. Then, Gurevich and Kim discuss quantifying allophonic coverage in commonly used reading passages. In summary, they suggest a need for new speech materials that could provide allophonic coverage. Finally, Jung, Jing, and Grigos investigate the accuracy and consistency of students’ perceptions/ratings of speech errors in children. They report that student clinicians’ ratings matched with expert speech-language pathologists’ ratings with training. The importance and need for listening training in speech-language pathology programs are also discussed.
Clinical Considerations in Older Adults
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This collection of articles provides valuable information on clinical practice in the elderly, including the relationship between physical frailty and cognitive functioning in older adults, communication challenges in older adults in group care settings and the potential factors that contribute to meaningful interactions and engaged communication in these settings, and the importance of providing graduate students opportunities for skill development for end-of-life situations.
Telepractice Perspectives From Today and Tomorrow: Students, Clinicians, and Beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The three articles in this SIG 18 activity were selected to provide information on the present and future of telepractice service delivery from the perspectives of current speech-language pathologists and graduate student clinicians. The first article by Page, Hughes, and Woody investigates the initial perceptions of graduate student clinicians following the implementation of telepractice. Findings reveal themes including comparisons between in-person services and telepractice regarding learning technology, managing environmental distractions at home, and caregiver involvement. The second article by Douglass, Lowman, and Causey-Upton provides a metaanalysis study on clinicians’ perceptions of telehealth across disciplines within rehabilitation and other allied health fields. Several themes are identified, including acceptance, lack of telehealth training, and the flexibility of telehealth. The third article by Edwards-Gaither, Harris, and Perry presents a viewpoint for the future of telepractice in speech-language pathology. Challenges and opportunities for the longevity of telepractice service delivery are discussed, including consensus on telepractice terminology, designating a service delivery model, and exploring telepractice occupational culture.
Dysphagia: A Different Take
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 13 articles provide helpful information in dysphagia practice. Tasia Gibbons, Sophia Werden Abrams, Nazia Mohsin, Rebekah Guastella, Stefania Oppedisano, and Ashwini Namasivayam-MacDonald endeavor to validate a new device to measure lingual strengthening and swallow function. Kelsey Thompson, Cara McComish, and Suzanne Thoyre’s work aims to introduce dynamic systems theory to pediatric feeding clinicians. Margaret Wright and Justin Sleffel demonstrate the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach and the vital role of speech-language pathologists in the evaluation and treatment of dysphagia of unknown etiology. Hollie-Ann Lee Shortland, Gwendalyn Webb, Anne E. Vertigan, and Sally Hewat aim to explore the use of myofunctional devices and how speech-language pathologists gain better understanding of this modality.
Student Perceptions and Experiences in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 10 activity focuses on student perceptions and experiences. In the first article, the experiences of SLP graduate students who previously worked as Speech-Language Pathology Assistants are compared with students who did not come into their programs with such experience. Implications for prospective students and program development are discussed. Next, authors investigate experiences of students and graduates of clinical doctorate programs, including the application process, their career goals and outcomes, and their general reflections on their decision to pursue the doctor of speech-language pathology degree. Third, authors present an examination of SLPs’ perceptions of graduate students in CSD who speak with vocal fry (a low-pitched, grating voice quality). Finally, in a mixed-method study, graduate and undergraduate students participate in a learning-by-teaching experience in two CSD courses. Three years of data is presented.
Pediatric Hearing Loss Providers’ Points of View: Counseling, Comfort Levels, and Certification
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These three articles center on aspects of audiology and speech-language pathology providers in pediatric hearing loss. First, “eHealth Coaching: Counseling Characteristics of Coaches Used With Parents” centers on identifying clinician communication behaviors and missed opportunities during an eHealth intervention. Themes were identified within each category. Trends included greater use of close-ended questions over open-ended questions, frequent responses to parent emotions, and engagement in a shared process through providing information and exploring progress on parent goals. Missed opportunities occurred within each category. Coaches' communication behaviors demonstrated support for parent learning that was positively received. Joint planning to address parent challenges was a missed opportunity to support parent behavior changes regarding hearing-aid routines. The aim of “Listening and Spoken Language Specialist Auditory–Verbal Certification: Self-Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Inform Change” was to explore the professional's viewpoint on the path to the Listening and Spoken Language Specialist (LSLS) certification. There were 295 participants from different parts of the world: certified LSLSs, mentees pursuing certification, and professionals interested in certification. The study addressed motivation, self-perceived gains, challenges, and barriers in an international cohort. The purpose of the study was to guide future changes within the certification system. Several indicators pointed to the need for more awareness of significant gains LSLS certification can bring to professionals. There is also a need to address, minimize, and overcome perceived barriers in the process. Similarly, research is warranted to explore obtaining LSLS certification outside English-speaking countries and with a larger, more population-based sample. In the closing article, “Comfort Levels of Providers Serving Children Who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing: Discrepancies and Opportunities,” Blaiser and Mahshie discuss that while best practice outlines specific skills and expertise from highly qualified providers, in reality, many lack confidence related to hearing technology and resources related to serving children who are deaf/hard of hearing (DHH). The study surveyed 459 professionals in ASHA serving children who are DHH. The intent was to compare differences in confidence, training, and using resources between providers who have a self-selected interest in working with children who are DHH (membership in SIG 9) and those who serve children who are DHH and are not part of the hearing-related SIG. The results indicate that there is limited provider confidence in working with this population. These conclusions provide graduate training programs opportunities to explore provision of more intensive, comprehensive experience to better serve children who are DHH.
Mindfulness, Quality of Life, and the Impact of COVID in CSD Programs
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 10 activity includes four articles exploring mindfulness, quality of life, and the impact of COVID in CSD programs. In the first article, outcomes are studied when graduate SLP students engage in a remote synchronous mindfulness program (RSMP). In the second article, a tutorial for contemplative pedagogy in CSD classrooms is introduced. Next, the quality of life and sleep among Brazilian SLP students during the COVID-19 pandemic is explored. The last article describes an exploratory study characterizing CSD doctoral students’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Student Learning in the Field of Communication Sciences and Disorders
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this SIG 10 activity, Farrugia explores the preparatory experiences of SLPs working in early intervention (EI) in Michigan, as a first step toward understanding how to best prepare students for practice and on-the-job learning in EI. McDaniel, Hessling Prahl, and Schuele provide a tutorial for a PhD Student–Mediated Mentorship Model (PSMMM) used within their lab. The PS-MMM teaches PhD students to be research mentors, encourages graduate clinicians to transition to research and doctoral training, and aims to increase the research experiences available to undergraduate and graduate students. Ronney and Kirby offer a critical review regarding service-learning with audiology students and their clients/patients. They describe best practice and common challenges to inform future research. Finally, Brackenbury and Kopf describe how game-based learning can facilitate student and client instruction through increased motivation and engagement, including suggestions for implementation in classroom and clinical settings.
Insights From School-Based Professionals on the Role and Services of SLPs
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 16 Perspectives course includes recent research that focuses on the relationships between SLPs and other school professionals. Articles explore the collaborative relationship between SLPs and classroom teachers; teachers' perspectives and the SLP’s role in supporting students with autism in the classroom; and school principals' perspectives, including their perceptions of integrated classroom-based services (ICBS).
Language Sample Analysis
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This course is based on a recently published SIG 1 Perspectives forum, Language Sample Analysis Tutorials. The articles in the forum focus on three types of language sample analysis and best practices for conducting them utilizing the Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN), Systematic Analysis of Language Transcriptions (SALT), and Sampling Utterances and Grammatical Analysis Revised (SUGAR).
Use of Single-Subject Design in Clinical Education and Supervision
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 11 Perspectives activity addresses the use of single-subject design in clinical education and supervision. In this article, the authors highlight the suitability of single-subject experimental design (SSED) to clinical practice research, particularly within supervisory settings. This practical tutorial provides examples of SSED and suggests possible research topics relevant to clinical education and supervision.
Stuttering Evaluation & Treatment: Best Practices, Practical Ideas, & Telehealth
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this SIG 4 activity, authors describe ways to (a) increase speech-language pathologists’ comfort with treating stuttering by providing a structured grouping of activities centered around using education, ease, and empowerment (Gore & Margulis); (b) continue using empirical evidence and clinical experience to make informed decisions about assessment procedures for young children who stutter (Singer & Kelly); and (c) provide holistic speech-language therapy services for stuttering using telehealth (McGill & Schroth). Each of these articles provides practicing clinicians ways to gain confidence in their abilities to provide evaluations and treatment across delivery paradigms.
Living With Stuttering: Parent Perceptions and Talking for Me
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this SIG 4 activity, authors detail the myriad of ways that stuttering can influence aspects of life, from parents’ differing perceptions of their child who stutters (Mostafa, St. Louis, El-Adaway, Emam, & Elbarody), to completion of turns by people who do not stutter when the person who stutters experiences stuttering (Kondrashov & Tetnowski). These articles help readers understand the pervasive nature that stuttering exerts on the lives of people who stutter across the lifespan.
Multicultural Considerations in Language Assessment and Autism Screenings
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The theme for this SIG 14 course is multicultural considerations in language assessment and autism screenings. Specific topics include: assessing article production accuracy in an Arabic-English speaking child as well as examination of the utility of the Vietnamese language version of the Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers-Revision with Follow-Up (M-CHAT-R/F) for screening Vietnamese children for autism risk.
Preparing Foundations for Success, Support, and Change
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this SIG 4 activity, authors explore ways to provide experiential learning to graduate students enrolled in stuttering courses (Palasik, Hughes, & Ellis) and discuss the clinical experiences of school-based speech-language pathologists related to stuttering (Panico, Daniels, Yarzebinski, & Hughes), strategies for teachers to support children who stutter (Cozart & Wilson), and ways to interrupt the narrative of ableism that surrounds the treatment of stuttering (Gerlach-Houck & Constantino). Each of these articles provides a unique perspective on ways that professionals can seek to create a more supportive environment for our clients who stutter by changing the foundations of the way we teach preservice clinicians, support our school-based colleagues, and address the narrative of ableism that pervades our culture.
Bilingual Parents’ Experiences Receiving Advice Regarding Language Use and Perspectives Related to Multicultural Training With SLPs
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The theme for this SIG 14 activity is bilingual parents’ experiences receiving advice regarding language use and perspectives related to multicultural training with SLPs. Topics include: examining the advice parents of bilingual children received from health care professionals and teachers regarding the language(s) their children should learn and use, as well as assessing whether SLPs feel adequately prepared to interact with, assess, instruct, or treat multicultural clients.
Special Topics in Service Delivery and Advocacy for People With Aphasia
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 2 activity, participants explore aspects of service delivery and advocacy for people with aphasia that are innovative and/or unique. The first article describes the creation of community aphasia groups and includes guidance for creating aphasia-friendly materials for a variety of purposes. The second article describes the challenges of people with aphasia in navigating the justice system and discusses strategies to support their success within that unique environment. The third article describes the nature of verbal short-term memory impairment in people with aphasia, methods of assessment, and potential directions for treatment.
Language and Literacy in Individuals with Intellectual Disability
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 1 Perspectives activity focuses on assessing and treating students with intellectual disability (ID) in the areas of language and literacy. The first article discusses the primary components of a parent-implemented language intervention for children with fragile X syndrome. The second article discusses emergent and conventional literacy skills and the strengths and challenges in reading and spelling for adolescents with ID. The third article describes the key components and modifications that can be utilized in narrative interventions when working with individuals that are diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The final article provides the parents’ perspectives of the home and school literacy experiences of children with ID in preschool.
Audiologic Variability Among Patients Undergoing Cisplatin Treatment
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The article in this SIG 6 activity focuses on the audiologic variations seen among patients undergoing the same type of ototoxic drug treatment (cisplatin). Results show a large amount of audiologic outcome variability among the two patients examined, despite similar demographic factors, drug treatments, and types of cancer. Factors relating to ototoxic susceptibility are discussed, and the importance of otoxicity monitoring programs for early detection of audiologic change is highlighted.
Addressing Current Demands in Geriatric Care: COVID-19 and the Workforce
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This course contains four articles that address current demands in geriatric care, including impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the shifting demographics reflecting an aging population.
Broad Perspectives in Speech-Language Pathology
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 19 activity bundles four articles providing perspectives on a broad variety of topics in speech-language pathology. First, Holt provides an overview of current and historical discussions of gender and race, challenging the reader to accept that one’s perspective is indebted to a specific belief system. Readers are to evaluate how gender and race are used to categorize people and examine whether a member of a marginalized or minoritized group affects that person’s access to or use of intervention services. Next, Cox and Koenig define speech privacy and provide a brief history and applications in the health care setting. A general perspective is outlined, including threats to speech privacy, and speakers who use an electrolarynx are used as an example to highlight specific issues clinicians may encounter. Ramanarayanan et al. discuss the use of speech as a biomarker in therapy and research. In summary, robustness of analytics—specificity, diversity, and physiological interpretability—must be further developed. Finally, Weerathunge, Tomassi, and Stepp review a number of populations with voice disorders that have been studied using altered auditory feedback. Many have hyperactive auditory feedback responses and the differing underling reasons are reviewed. Therapy considerations are also described.
Pathways to Specializing in Voice and Upper Airway Disorders: Multiple Perspectives
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
It is well known within our field that identifying voice and upper airway specialized training opportunities and subsequent positions is challenging, competitive, and sometimes elusive. In this SIG 3 activity, various pathways to specializing in voice and upper airway disorders are explored from the viewpoint of different authors at various stages of their careers. The hope is to make the process of specialization more transparent and share components that have contributed to success, while also highlighting the diversity of training and experience that is so important in our field.
Special Populations in Dysphagia Management: COVID-19, Feeding Disorders, Drug Use, and Burn Care
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These four SIG 13 articles provide information for dysphagia practice. They address a unique array of special populations and challenges in patient care involving swallowing and feeding difficulties.
Self-Reported Confidence and Knowledge in Working With CLD Populations and Considerations for Assessment in Individuals Who Speak Languages Other Than English
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The theme for this SIG 14 activity is self-reported confidence and knowledge between multilingual and monolingual speech-language pathologists in working with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) individuals and assessment considerations when working with individuals who speak a language other than English. Topics include (a) examining differences between self-reported confidence and knowledge in multilingual and monolingual speech language pathologists; (b) nonword repetition in assessment; and (c) sound sequencing characteristics in words of children who speak German.
Approaches to Auditory Rehabilitation for Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 7 Perspectives articles focus on auditory rehabilitation (AR) for adults with cochlear implants. While the benefits of AR in the population are recognized in the literature, service-delivery models are variable, and there is no gold standard approach to developing and implementing a comprehensive AR program. Glade and colleagues provide an overview of clinical models currently being used for the provision of AR for adults with cochlear implants from nine clinics across the country. The article highlights the importance of interprofessional practice in AR and outlines the roles of professionals included on care teams. There is a discussion about barriers to successful implementation of AR programs, including distance to services, and recommendations for potential solutions, such as teletherapy. In the second article, Mosley describes the process of creating and implementing a comprehensive teleaudiology AR program for older adults who use cochlear implants at the University of South Alabama Speech & Hearing Center.
Creative Solutions to Global Issues in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In an ever-changing global landscape, it is pertinent that audiologists and speech-language pathologists “account for the complexity and diversity of healthcare contexts” (as stated in the second article by Pillay and Pillay). Pressing concerns related to advancing technology (artificial intelligence and machine learning), culturally responsive practice, and rapid climate change are all trending societal conversations. This SIG 17 self-study explores creative solutions to pressing global issues that impact the field of audiology and speech-language pathology. Topics presented include key ethical concerns regarding hearing aids with machine learning, a novel culturally responsive framework for contextualized clinical reasoning, and the impact of climate change on communication and swallowing disorders.
Supervision: Addressing Emotional Resilience, Reflection, & Cultural Competence
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 11 Perspectives activity addresses aspects of clinical supervision and administration beyond the “Big Nine” clinical competencies. In the first article, the author discusses the significance of emotional resilience and provides practical strategies to encourage resiliency in supervisees. The second article explains the significance of cultural competence and the value of open conversations within supervisory relationships. Finally, the third article highlights key skills used in intentional and reflective supervision.
Telepractice & Audiology Services: International, Parental, & Practitioner Views
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The first article in this SIG 18 activity investigates the applications speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and audiologists used most frequently during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. It also discusses the main obstacles to providing speech, language, and hearing services through telepractice. Through the international distribution of an electronic survey, a total of 1,466 surveys from SLPs and audiologists from 40 countries were used for the analysis. The second article discusses the Auditory Verbal UK's training program for prospective listening and spoken language specialist certified auditory verbal therapists delivered globally via telepractice. The article explores, from a global perspective, audiology and early intervention services and perspectives regarding telepractice. The third article explores parents' and therapists' views of the benefits and challenges of telepractice for early intervention for children who are deaf or hard of hearing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through survey and analysis, the article probes the views of parents, Listening and Spoken Language Specialist Certified Auditory Verbal Therapists in using telepractice to deliver auditory verbal sessions.
A Trio of Articles: Students' Perspectives After Cued Speech Course, Barriers to Equity in Pediatric Hearing Health Care, and Assessing American Sign Language Across Clinical Settings
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This trio of SIG 9 articles provides the reader with three diversely focused topics related to pediatric hearing and hearing disorders. These range from a review of barriers to equity in pediatric hearing health care, to students’ perspectives on preservice education about cued speech, and then how practitioners measure receptive and expressive American Sign Language (ASL). The review, “Barriers to Equity in Pediatric Hearing Health Care: A Review of the Evidence,” explores data to suggest that hearing health care disparities constitute a major factor in loss to follow-up or documentation for children going through the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention process. Underlying disparities are multifactorial and result in delayed care and suboptimal developmental outcomes for children who are deaf or hard of hearing. “ASL Assessment in Practice: Assessing American Sign Language Across Clinical Settings” discusses exploratory research to investigate what assessment tools professionals use in measuring receptive and expressive ASL. Conclusions indicate that there is variable access and knowledge for appropriate assessment measures in ASL. “The Effect of a Graduate Course in Cued Speech on Students' Perspectives: A Pilot Study” is a pilot study investigating the beliefs and attitudes in Deaf Education related to a course on cued speech. The investigation revealed that a single course in the approach could influence student perspectives on cued speech and other Deaf Education instructional approaches.
Cleft Lip and Palate Care and the Opioid Crisis
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 5 activity analyzes the relationship between the opioid crisis and cleft lip and palate care across the life span. Two main themes of prevention and treatment after exposure are explained. The articles outline alternatives to opioid use after cleft-related surgeries, impacts on infants and children who were exposed in utero, and velopharyngeal insufficiency treatment after substance abuse.
Current Issues in Augmentative and Alternative Communication
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 12 Perspectives articles provide information on current issues associated with visual processing of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) displays for people with traumatic brain injury, assessment of the expressive language abilities of Spanish-speaking children who rely on AAC, and culturally sensitive approaches to aided language modeling. Readers will be more adept at designing effective AAC displays for adults with traumatic brain injury and at providing AAC services to children from multilingual and multicultural backgrounds.
Holistic Admissions in CSD Programs
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this SIG 10 activity, authors explore holistic admissions in CSD programs. Carmichael, Mandulak, and Watkins provide a tutorial for incorporating interviews during the admissions process. Scheer-Cohen, Heisler, and Moineau outline an approach to holistic admissions that includes a video response to a question, an informal group interview, a live lecture with an assessment, a simulation, content quiz, a writing prompt, and an individual live interview. Reisfeld and Kaplan provide a systemic review of admission measures that may be used to predict graduate students’ clinical skills. Finally, Newkirk-Turner and Hudson explore the dangers of unconscious bias in letters of recommendation for graduate admissions.
Paradigm Shifts in Culturally Relevant Family-Centered Intervention/Instruction
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The theme for this SIG 14 activity is clinical considerations through paradigm shifts in providing culturally relevant family-centered intervention and instruction. Topics include (a) providing culturally relevant family centered care; (b) second language literacy instruction for multilingual adolescents; and (c) impacts of study abroad experiences on students’ intercultural competence.
Community-Based Group Therapy for African American Elders and Public Health Frameworks in Education
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In “Coupling Hearing Health With Community-Based Group Therapy for Cognitive Health in Low-Income African American Elders,” Postman et al. describe a community-based group intervention to address disparities experienced by African American elders in the early stages of cognitive–communicative decline. The intervention included partnerships with community health centers, culturally informed activities, and ongoing input from staff and participants. The authors describe the advantages of this community-engaged approach, as well as the benefits of joining hearing and cognition for minimizing access barriers. In “Public Health Frameworks in Audiology Education: Rationale and Model for Implementation,” Warren and Levy review how public health education can advance the field of audiology, particularly through coursework and dual degree programs. The authors also describe two frameworks for public health training in an audiology academic setting and identify the competencies that overlap in audiology and public health, helping to illustrate the relevance of public health education in addressing objectives in hearing health care.
Clinical Impact of Research
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG Special Topics articles provide guidance to current and future researchers in communication sciences and disorders about how to maximize the clinical impact of their research. Utianski et al. describe clinical practice research and the current barriers to it, while highlighting initiatives researchers can take advantage of. Douglas et al. define knowledge brokering and outline the roles of organizations and individuals who take on that job. Then, Davidson and colleagues offer researchers concrete steps for using social media to enhance impact. Finally, Nicholson and Smith review both traditional science impact metrics and alternative metrics and offer concrete recommendations for documenting clinical impact for use in one’s CV or career advancement materials.
Predictors of Caseload Size and Articulation Intervention
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 16 Perspectives activity includes research that focuses on caseload issues and articulation intervention. Articles discuss the relationship between school factors and speech-language therapy enrollment in public schools; the efficacy of using the SATPAC (Systematic Articulation Training Program Accessing Computers) approach with children receiving intervention through response to intervention; and the effectiveness of biofeedback technologies as a form of intervention for speech sound production.
Dysphagia in Practice: Thickening Practices, Family-Centered Care, & Early Intervention
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This collection of SIG 13 articles addresses popular topics in dysphagia care throughout the life span regarding thickening practices, family-centered care, and early intervention. Jane Mertz Garcia, Edgar Chambers IV, and Anna Boyer utilized a survey to re-examine practice patterns for thickened liquids and provided a comparison of past practices with current to provide insight into contemporary themes that have previously not been considered. Doreen Benson and George Barnes explore the utility of a mathematical prediction model (Bayes theorem) in dysphagia management. Samantha E. Shune, Deanna Linville, and Ashwini Namasivayam-MacDonald address maximizing treatment effectiveness by using an approach with family resiliency and adaptation. Drawing from the principles of family systems theory and the biopsychosocial-spiritual framework, they use a case study as a tutorial to explore the application of family-centered care models to dysphagia management. Stephanie C. Cohen and Karen Dilfer focus on the definition of pediatric feeding disorder (PFD) and the multifaceted needs of families and children in early intervention, support for use of responsive feeding in treatment of PFD, alignment of responsive feeding strategies with early intervention principles, and barriers limiting access to consistent, high-quality early intervention services for children with PFD.
Foundations of Stroboscopic Interpretation and Clinical Cases
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this series of SIG 3 articles, a foundation for laryngeal endoscopic imaging and interpreting videostroboscopic parameters is provided. These concepts are then put into practice in the context of three case studies focused on muscle tension dysphonia, bilateral vocal fold lesions, and vocal fold immobility. In the cases, auditory perceptual analysis, acoustic and aerodynamic measures, and candidacy for voice therapy are assessed in addition to videostroboscopic parameters. Video and audio examples are included to provide an interactive experience for the reader.
Autism and Telepractice
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 1 Perspectives activity focuses on how to work with students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their caregivers via telepractice. The first article provides five practical tips for supporting families of children with ASD while implementing effective interventions via various telepractice modalities. The second article reviews the feasibility of implementing telehealth programs related to behavioral interventions for families and their children with ASD. The third article explores the usability of a web-based application of the JASPER social communication intervention. The fourth article discusses the results of a survey completed by speech-language pathologists who utilized telepractice to teach children with autism to access and use augmentative and alternative communication devices. The final article shares current available research related to the barriers of and solutions to conducting telehealth assessment and interventions for families and their students with ASD.
Considerations for Dysphagia Intervention in the Hospital: Adult and Pediatric
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 13 collection of astute articles provides information regarding managing and treating dysphagia in the hospital for both adult and pediatric patients. Nalia GurgelJuarez and colleagues explore the frequency of oral care based on staff adherence to oral care policies. Rebecca Smith et al. investigate the quality-of-life impacts of dysphagia and its interventions on mealtimes using the Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Eating Assessment Tool. Jessica L. Rice and Maureen A. LeftonGreif review high-flow nasal cannula mechanisms of action, its use in specific populations and settings, and what is known about initiation of feeding during this therapy. Finally, Donna Edwards and colleagues explore the impact of COVID-19 on modifications in clinical practice related to pediatric feeding disorders and dysphagia via telehealth.
Assessment and Treatment Considerations
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The first two articles in this SIG 19 activity provide information to better our assessment and treatment of individuals in the area of voice, while the latter two articles focus on treatment of individuals in the area of speech production. The authors for all four articles present a review of the literature as well as challenges and future directions. First, Van Hook and Duffy conducted a pilot study to trial the Gender Spectrum Voice Inventory. This article provides a review, discussion of validity, and speech-language pathologists’ perceptions of the inventory in an effort to address a gap in available clinical tools for transgender and nonbinary people. Next, Hammer reviews the relationship between air flow with sound pressure level during syllable production while holding fundamental frequency and subglottic air pressure constant. The results have clinical implications that stress the importance of an increase in air flow and focus on vocal fold contact. Then, Gritsyk et al. describe their study to determine which measures of somatosensory acuity best predicted change in production accuracy during vowel learning tasks while controlling auditory acuity. Results indicate only bite block adaptation with auditory masking was significantly associated with performance. Finally, Zajac et al. discuss their preliminary study that indicated cleft type contributes to production errors, specifically backing, in children with repaired cleft palate. Additionally, a history of otitis media affects the spectral contrast of alveolar consonants in children without clefts.
Counseling in Acquired Brain Injury
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 2 Perspectives articles focus on counseling skills for working with persons with aphasia, “counseling+” activities for patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and resilience in neurorehabilitation. Topics include counseling skills; counseling roles of SLPs; care partner training; and resilience in persons with acquired brain injury, aphasia, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Ethical Challenges in Various School-Based Scenarios
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 1 activity focuses on ethical challenges that audiologists and SLPs may face in various school-based scenarios. A 5-step ethical decision-making approach is presented. An ethical decision-making model is used to help prepare clinicians for the ethical continuation of telepractice in schools. Some thoughts and tools for connecting ethical practices with the provision of culturally sensitive/responsive services are provided.
Adult Dysphagia Management: Diet, Sleep Apnea, Intensive Care Unit, and Dementia
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This quartet of SIG 13 articles provides information regarding managing and treating dysphagia in the adult population. Caileen Harvey, Rachel Flemming, Julia Davis, and Victoria Reynolds investigate International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative implementation issues by surveying health care professionals in health care facilities in rural Upstate New York. Ankita M. Bhutada, William A. Broughton, Brenda L. Beverly, Dahye Choi, Sandip Barui, and Kendrea L. (Focht) Garand aim to identify the prevalence of dysphagia and reflux reported symptoms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and determine associations between symptoms and demographic and clinical variables. Stevie Marvin summarizes published research on screening, evaluating, and treating post-extubation dysphagia in the intensive care unit. Rebekah Guastella, Stefania Oppedisano, Luis F. Riquelme, and Ashwini M. Namasivayam-MacDonald study bolus location at swallow onset, stage transition, pharyngeal transition duration, pharyngeal response duration, and pharyngeal phase duration between cued and uncued swallowing conditions in patients with dementia.
Clinical Practice Considerations: COVID-19, Word Retrieval, and Tinnitus
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
Three clinical practice considerations are reviewed within this course, including communication with patients/families in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, identification of word finding errors in normally aging individuals, and how to address severe tinnitus.
Executive Functions and Language: Self-Talk, Syntax, Semantics, and Strategies for Planning and Self-Regulation
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 1 Perspectives activity focuses on the relationship between language and executive function (EF) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or developmental language disorder (DLD). A clinical model of language therapy for adolescents with DLD and concomitant EF deficits was proposed. Finally, a theoretical framework for understanding and promoting metacognition and EF as part of assessment and treatment plans for speech-language pathologists was discussed.
Social Considerations: Exercise and Engagement, Communicative Participation
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives course contains three articles that focus on social considerations in the elderly, with emphases on risk factors for dementia and treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
Techniques for Designing Courses, Examining Preferences, and Conducting Experiential Learning
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
Pedagogical practices in communication sciences and disorders have grown thanks in part to innovative techniques from other fields. The articles in this activity each present models that can be successfully incorporated into our discipline. Slavych describes models of backward course design—course development that starts by focusing on learning outcomes before considering content or teaching methods. Squires and Squires introduce best–worst scaling, a method for examining group preferences, and reported on how it can inform admissions practices. Speights Atkins et al. describe models of mentoring undergraduate research experiences and their applications in two communication sciences and disorders research labs. Finally, Perryman et al. examine the effects of a mixed-reality simulation in which actors playing parents interacted through computer avatars with undergraduate students carrying out clinical procedures.
Educational Needs Assessments Within Communication Sciences and Disorders
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The articles included here examine the current state of education of three topics within our discipline. DeJarnette and Wegner report on the classroom and clinical training that graduate students in speech-language pathology receive in augmentative and alternative communication. Domholdt and Billings identify associations and disconnects within graduate programs’ interests and practices in teaching population health concepts—that is, clinical care regarding communities and large systems. Finally, Tucker et al. examine practicing audiologists’ and speech-language pathologists’ interests in obtaining a research-based PhD in communication sciences and disorders and barriers to starting and completing a doctoral program.
Contextualized Language Interventions for Secondary Students
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 1 Perspectives activity focuses on therapeutic interventions related to contextualized language for school-age and adolescent students. Articles discuss intervention to increase motivation while targeting language-based literacy skills; development of collaborative academic conversations in older students with language delays and impairments; semantic reasoning as a vocabulary teaching tool; how a written, graphic, and oral learning strategy can improve comprehension, retention, and expression; and how morphological awareness intervention can be linked to learning academic vocabulary within disciplinary literacy strategies.
Dysphagia Revelations: What We Know We Don’t Know and What Is Normal for Swallowing
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This trio of SIG 13 articles provides information regarding unique factions of dysphagia intervention. Sophia Werden Abrams, Harmonie S. J. Chan, Jasmeet Sikand, Heather Wilkie, and Kim Smith raise awareness for the importance of neurodegenerative disorder research involving dysphagia caused by oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Michela Jean Mir and Karen Wheeler Hegland aim to shed light on the subjective use of cough assessment and the importance and interest in formal clinical cough assessment training. Kendrea L. (Focht) Garand, Mary Catherine Reilly, Dahye Choi, Rajarshi Dey, Julie Estis, and Grayson Hill evaluate community dwelling adults using Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile components for bolus hold type to assist in defining typical swallowing behaviors.
Examining Challenges for Faculty and Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders Programs
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The theme for this SIG 14 activity is examining challenges for faculty and students in communication sciences and disorders (CSD). Topics include (a) challenges faced by academic mothers in CSD programs; (b) challenges faced by faculty of color in CSD departments; and (c) examining microaggression endorsement in CSD students.
Increasing Equity and Inclusion for Minoritized Students and Faculty in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The articles in this course present models for increasing equity and inclusion across our discipline. Girolamo and Ghali introduce a student-led grassroots initiative that supports minority students at all levels. Mohapatra and Mohan propose a model for increasing student diversity and inclusion based on successful programs from other health-related disciplines. Finally, Mishra et al. examine three challenges that faculty of color face: cultural competency, imposter syndrome, and racial microaggressions.
A Tale of Two Articles: Adolescent Misophonia and Using Apps in Service Delivery for Children With Hearing Loss
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This activity has two articles with different foci. The misophonia case study is a contribution to the evidence base for use of sound therapy and coping strategies in treating and managing misophonia. It also shares available tools for diagnosing misophonia. The study about using learning applications in intervention for children with hearing loss shares results of a speech-language pathologists' focus group. The focus group centered on using speech and language application features, benefits, and concerns in school-based service delivery
Clinical Considerations for Working With Multicultural Populations in Schools and in the Community
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The theme for this Perspectives activity is clinical considerations for working with multicultural populations in schools and the community. Topics include (a) assessment practices for multilingual children in schools, (b) school-based speech language pathologists working with interpreter-translators, and (c) factors associated with clear speech and accentedness in American English.
Interesting Discoveries in Adult Dysphagia Intervention: Screening, Evaluation, and Telehealth
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This assemblage of articles provides information on interesting topics encountered in adult dysphagia practice. Aarthi Madhavan, Nicole Shuman, Claire Snyder, and Nicole Etter provide insight on the comparative consistency of the Eating Assessment Tool and Sydney Swallow Questionnaire scores for self-reported swallowing difficulties in a group of community-dwelling older adults completing both questionnaires. Georgina Papadopoulos-Nydam, Jana Maureen Rieger, and Gabriela Constantinescu evaluate the usability of a mobile health (mHealth) system designed for dysphagia exercise in persons with a history of stroke. Renata Mancopes, Fernanda Borowsky da Rosa, Lidia Lis Tomasi, Adriane S. Pasqualoto, and Catriona M. Steele demonstrate concern for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and share information regarding dysphagia in people with COPD, synthesizing knowledge both from the literature and from studies performed in the context of a multidisciplinary clinical pulmonary rehabilitation program abroad. Additionally, Talia H. Schwartz brings to light the importance and utility of the clinical swallow evaluation while caring for patients with COVID-19.
COVID-19: A Global Perspective
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 17 Perspectives articles focus on the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic on service provision and student training in four global contexts: Cyprus, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Topics include the rise of telesupervision, telepractice in speech-language pathology (SLP), and distance learning in Cyprus during COVID-19; the effectiveness of SLP and related service treatment of patients with COVID-19 in an inpatient rehabilitation setting in the United States; the impact and transformation of an SLP university program in South Africa due to COVD-19; and the perspectives of parents/caregivers on SLP service provision during the pandemic for children born with cleft palates in the United Kingdom.
Contemporary Issues: Augmentative & Alternative Communication Service Provision
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 12 Perspectives articles provide information on current issues associated with display design and image complexity for individuals with cortical visual impairment and an in-depth overview of telepractice for people who rely on augmentative and alternative communication. Readers will be more adept at assessing and assisting children with cortical visual impairment and will have a better understanding of telepractice methods that can be used to improve virtual service delivery.
Epidemiology and Boothless Audiology Service Delivery
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 8 Perspectives articles focus on topics that are important in promoting public health audiology. In “Fundamentals of Epidemiology for the Audiologist,” Torre and Reavis provide an overview of basic epidemiologic concepts including study design, prevalence, incidence, risk ratios, and odds ratios. The authors emphasize that an understanding of epidemiology is crucial for audiologists for a variety of reasons, including to help them assess the quality of publications, evaluate and discuss the efficacy of screening methods, and evaluate and communicate risk factors for ear and hearing problems. In “Hearing Health Care Delivery Outside the Booth,” Gates, Hecht, Grantham, Fallon, and Martukovich review the literature on boothless audiometry and introduce current tools used to deliver hearing health care outside of the traditional clinic setting. From their review, the authors conclude that boothless audiometry technology provides an opportunity for audiologists to expand services to nontraditional settings such as waiting grooms and nursing homes, increasing access to care, early identification, and intervention, and therefore improving health outcomes.
Patient-Centered Communication in Audiology
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
How can audiologists enhance patient-centered communication, even during the COVID-19 pandemic? This self-study is from the journal, Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, SIG 7: Auditory Rehabilitation and Its Instrumentation. It features two articles focused on patient-centered strategies for effective communication, from initial consultations to prioritizing follow-up care, during COVID-19. It also includes the article that won the 2021 ASHA Journals Editor’s Award for Perspectives (for SIGs 6, 7, 8, and 9) by Davidson and Marrone. The first article is, “How to Provide Accessible Hearing Health Information to Promote Patient-Centered Care.” Kelly-Campbell and Manchaiah review the literature within audiology on patient-provider communication. They focus on research studies of communication during initial audiology consultation sessions. Through a summary of themes in the literature, they categorize important research findings that provide insight into communication between patients and their audiologists. Finally, they identify five key strategies for effective patient-centered communication. Each strategy is then reviewed in detail, with clinical examples and specific recommendations that can be immediately implemented in practice. The second article is, “A Clinically Valuable Interaction in the Midst of COVID-19 and Beyond: A Viewpoint on the Importance of Patient-Centered Outcomes in Rehabilitative Audiology.” Davidson and Marrone discuss patient-centered communication following hearing aid device fittings. They identify challenges facing patients and audiologists related to follow-up hearing aid services as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on a literature review and their own recent research, they developed a decision-tree algorithm to help audiologists prioritize clinical activities following hearing aid fittings, including remote formats for care. The algorithm was based on use of a patient-centered outcome measure, the Measure of Audiologic Rehabilitation Self-Efficacy. Patient-centered outcomes measurement is suggested as an engagement strategy for continued communication with patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
Promoting Mental Health for School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists & Students
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 16 Perspectives course highlights some of the realities faced by school-based SLPs and their students. Articles discuss the challenges that are all too often experienced by SLPs and our students, as well as recommendations for how to increase satisfaction with school-based positions, reduce burnout, and increase the mental health, representation, and motivation of our students.
Expanding Educational Opportunities in CSD Programs
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this activity, four recent SIG 10 articles are presented. First, Domsch, Stiritz, and Huff utilized a mixed-methods design to examine the cultural awareness of students in communication sciences and disorders (CSD) during and after a study-abroad experience. Next, Franca, Boyer, and Pegoraro-Krook explored activities designed to promote cultural and clinical competence in a collaboration between CSD programs in the United States and Brazil. Then, Veyvoda and Van Cleave reviewed the literature on service-learning and community-engaged learning, described how these approaches could be used in distance-learning modalities, and explored how doing so could be accomplished during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, Towson et al. studied the effectiveness of coaching paired with the use of a mixed-reality simulator as CSD students practiced interprofessional communication skills in role-play scenarios.
Impact of Allergies on Sleep in Stuttering; Using Solution-Focused Principles
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These articles show the breadth of topics relevant to the understanding and treatment of fluency and fluency disorders. The articles include topics on the impact of allergies on the sleep of children who stutter and using solution-focused principles to elicit perspectives on therapeutic change in older children who stutter and their parents.
Clinical Considerations for Children and Adults From CLD Backgrounds
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The theme for this Perspectives course is clinical considerations in assessment of children and adults from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds and providing culturally supporting treatment settings. Topics include (a) acoustic parameters of retroflex sounds, (b) the two-question method for assessing gender identity, (c) assessment recommendations for new language learners, and (d) creating culturally supportive settings to foster literacy development.
Advances in Hearing Diagnostics, Treatment, & Prevention
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These three articles describe current issues and advances related to hearing diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The first article is a detailed description of the impact that COVID-19 face masks and social distancing regulations have had on speech recognition and how face masks affect the acoustic signal and increase cognitive effort in listeners with hearing loss. Suggestions for mitigating these deleterious impacts on communication are provided. The second article is a research study examining the correlation between self-perceived hearing difficulty, determined using a questionnaire (Adult Auditory Performance Scale), and speech-in-noise performance (Listening in Spatialized Noise–Sentences Test) in listeners with normal pure-tone thresholds. Results highlight the relationship between self-perceived hearing abilities and binaural speech-in-noise performance supporting the inclusion of speech-in-noise testing even in those with normal pure-tone thresholds. The third article is a review of current genetic, stem cell, and pharmacotherapy research for treatment and prevention of hearing loss. Animal models are discussed, as well as steps to translate this research into clinical practice.
Effective Relationships in Supervisory and Work Settings
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 11 Perspectives activity presents two unique articles related to enhancing relationships in supervisory and work settings. The first article highlights specific skills sets required for clinical providers and describes primary performance indicators (PPIs) that are critical to building effective working relationships. In the second article, the authors detail the findings of a study on similarities and differences in work ethic among three generations of speech-language pathologists.
Clinical Practices for Aphasia
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 2 articles focus on clinical assessment and practices for individuals with aphasia. Topics covered included challenges associated with diagnosing primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and the impact of adaptive yoga programs for persons with aphasia. First, Aimee Dietz, E. Susan Duncan, Lauren Bislick, Sarah Stegman, Jenna Collins, Chitrali Mamlekar, Rachel Gleason, and Michael J. McCarthy provide an overview of the potential impact adapted yoga programs can have for people with stroke-induced aphasia. Second, Adithya Chandregowda raises awareness about the challenges associated with encountering primary progressive aphasia (PPA) patients in the acute hospital setting.
Diagnostic Measures for Velopharyngeal Function
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives activity highlights two articles with objective measures for both evaluation and treatment of velopharyngeal dysfunction. The first article discusses the palatal closure efficiency (PaCE) index. This is an aerodynamic tool used to estimate the velopharyngeal opening during certain speech contexts. This is done by measuring a percentage of change between nasal and oral cognates of an individual. The second article describes the nasometer in depth, highlighting its use as an evaluation and treatment tool for decreasing hypernasality. It goes into further detail on the differences between hypernasality and measured nasalance, highlighting both strengths and limitations of the nasalance score.
A Myriad of Dysphagia Interventions: NICU, Cultural Humility, Instrumentation, Nursing, Tracheostomy Tubes, and Technology
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This collection of articles presents clinicians with evidence on a variety of topics in dysphagia that can be utilized in practice immediately. Alaina Martens and Emily Zimmerman offer insight regarding changes to feeding patterns in infants diagnosed with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after prolonged oxygen therapy in the newborn intensive care unit. Paula Leslie and colleagues provide a framework of health and illness and how food and drink are much more. They stress the importance of clinician appreciation as a cultural guest in our patients’ lives. Bonnie Martin-Harris and colleagues stress the importance of instrumentation with a thorough review of available practice guidelines and appropriateness criteria issued to date, revealing a deficit of up-to-date, comprehensive, evidence-based information on the diagnosis and evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Specifically, a lack of quality guidance on the ordering, performance, and reporting of the modified barium swallow study has hindered efforts to improve standardization and ensure quality continuity of care. Naomi Gurevich and colleagues stress the need to clarify guidelines and increase interprofessional education between both professions to improve patient care. George Barnes and Nancy Toms highlight speech-language pathologists’ need for a solid foundation of knowledge when it comes to patients with highly complex disease processes and care plans. Deirdre Muldoon and colleagues conduct a review of published literature regarding management of feeding difficulties at the oral phase of feeding in children with autism spectrum disorder and/or developmental disability. Finally, Paul M. Evitts and colleagues reveal a potential way to track aspiration in healthy adults using an app.
Quality of Life in Communication Among the Elderly
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This course is composed of three articles that center around quality of life: at end of life, following a stroke, and among individuals with voice disorders.
Progressive Topics for Consideration: Ageism, Systems of Oppression in Geriatrics, and Health Disparities
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This course examines three progressive cultural topics as they relate to speech-language pathology and audiology: ageism among CSD graduate students; institutional, symbolic, and individual systems of oppression; and the interaction between social determinants and health disparities.
Education, Considerations, and Techniques in Gender Affirming Voice Care
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this series of articles, the need for clear guidelines in graduate education on the topic of transgender voice and communication is explored through an e-survey. Considerations for culturally competent voice care is presented in the context of two case studies. Case studies are also used to highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary gender affirming approach for successful voice care with adolescence. In the final article, a voice technique is adapted for voice masculinization.
Communication Choice and Agency: Thinking Beyond  Spoken Language for Individuals on the Autism  Spectrum
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives activity focuses on communication choice and agency for individuals on the autism spectrum. These individuals are the key informants in decisions around the conceptualization, implementation, and evaluation of educational programming for autistic learners. Speaking autistic adults encourage families, professionals, and society to promote and accept all communication as equal.
Language and Literacy Intervention Topics for Children  With Hearing Loss and Deafness
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This activity includes two articles related to language and literacy intervention for children with hearing loss and deafness. In the first article, Stephanie Mary Raymond and Tring D. Spencer investigate the effect of narrative language intervention on the narrative retelling skills and vocabulary use of children with hearing loss. In the second article, Krystal L. Werfel and Sarah Lawrence describe specific considerations for print-referencing interventions for children with hearing loss along with a case study. The respective authors conclude that print referencing, with specific considerations for children with hearing loss, may be an effective emergent literacy intervention to increase conceptual print knowledge for children preschool-age with hearing loss; and narrative intervention is promising for facilitating language skills improvement for children with hearing loss. Both studies require replication for their findings.
Childhood Maltreatment Consequences on Social Pragmatic and Literacy Skills
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This activity focuses on the childhood maltreatment consequences on social pragmatic communication. Based on a complex family and social conception of neglect, a logical model illustrating public health services for children experiencing neglect is proposed. The role of speech-language pathology in prevention, policy, and practice is outlined. The importance of assessing the narrative language of children exposed to complex trauma is also emphasized.
Novelty in School-Based Evaluation, Treatment, and Roles
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 16 Perspectives course highlights novel approaches to eligibility decision-making, intervention, and the roles and responsibilities of school-based SLPs. Articles discuss how to utilize a design thinking framework when making eligibility recommendations for children with oral and written language disorders; using electropalatographic therapy for the remediation of speech sound disorders; and ideas of how to prepare to be a fact witness or an expert witness if called to testify in a special education dispute or civil litigation case.
Clinical, Research, Linguistic, and Technical Considerations in Telepractice
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This activity presents a variety of topics related to telepractice service provision. The first article offers a case study on the effects of a hybrid telepractice/onsite treatment program for a child who stutters. The following article discusses common technical issues encountered during telepractice and a process for managing them with English- and Spanish-speaking clients. The final article details the findings of a study on integrating technology through telepractice to support clients with dementia.
Speech Science Views and News
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This activity presents a diverse perspective, including four different speech science articles focused on a variety of topics. Kimball and Sayce discuss the pros and cons of research using behavior and functional assessment and treatment in the areas of speech science and voice, specifically their limitation in outlining etiology or explaining treatment resistance. They also provide an overview of genetic research approaches as a possible path forward to develop additional evidence-based treatment approaches. Neel reviews the production and perception of extralinguistic information regarding sex/gender, sexual orientation, age, non-native accent, regional and social dialect, and race and ethnicity. The article explores the literature in the above areas reviewing acoustical features and common misperceptions, concluding with instructional activities to enhance student awareness of indexical characteristics. McAllister et al. studied the effects of biofeedback for residual rhotic errors in a preliminary case series. Participants were five native English speakers who had not yet generalized rhotic production. Treatment consisted of either electropalatographic or visual-acoustic biofeedback using the Challenge Point Program software. Although participant responses to treatment were variable, the median effect size tended to exceed the minimum value considered clinically significant. Gritsyk et al. examined three measures to determine which best predicted change in production accuracy during a vowel learning task. Using 20 female college students, researchers administered three tasks: an oral stereognosis task, a bite block task using auditory making, and a new phonetic awareness task. The bite block task with auditory masking, measuring proprioceptive awareness, was the only task significantly related to performance in speech learning.
Evaluating Dysphagia Across the Life Span
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The assemblage of articles presents clinicians with information on a variety of topics in dysphagia that can be utilized in practice. Laura L. Madhoun, Laura C. Merrell, Amanda Smith, Emily Snow, and Kristen M. Cherosky stress the importance of individualized and comprehensive feeding management for craniofacial anomalies through interdisciplinary collaboration. Lena G. Caesar and Meretu Kitila study clinicians’ perceptions and confidence with dysphagia service delivery. Aliaa Sabry, Amanda S. Mahoney, Shitong Mao, Yassin Khalifa, Ervin Sejdic, and James L. Coyle point out an objective way to assess laryngeal vestibule closure and opening at beside. Marie Jardine, Anna Miles, Jacqui Allen, and Rebecca Leonard give an interesting take of assessment of the aging swallow. Kelsey L. Thompson and Wanqing Zhang provide description and examples of mixed method research to comprehensively and holistically report of pediatric feeding disorders.
Assessment and Treatment of Social Language Deficits in School-Aged Students
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives activity focuses on the assessment and treatment of school-age students with social language deficits. Articles focus on conversational profiles for students with autism and intervention strategies appropriate for students within each profile; the benefit of using analog tasks with toddlers through adolescents to evaluate social communication abilities and guide intervention; best practices in assessing students with social communication deficits; and how effective commercially available standardized tests are for evaluating the social and pragmatic language deficits of students with social pragmatic communication disorder within and separate from autism.

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