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Evaluating Dysphagia Across the Life Span
Event Dates:4/12/2021-4/12/2026
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The assemblage of articles presents clinicians with information on a variety of topics in dysphagia that can be utilized in practice. Laura L. Madhoun, Laura C. Merrell, Amanda Smith, Emily Snow, and Kristen M. Cherosky stress the importance of individualized and comprehensive feeding management for craniofacial anomalies through interdisciplinary collaboration. Lena G. Caesar and Meretu Kitila study clinicians’ perceptions and confidence with dysphagia service delivery. Aliaa Sabry, Amanda S. Mahoney, Shitong Mao, Yassin Khalifa, Ervin Sejdic, and James L. Coyle point out an objective way to assess laryngeal vestibule closure and opening at beside. Marie Jardine, Anna Miles, Jacqui Allen, and Rebecca Leonard give an interesting take of assessment of the aging swallow. Kelsey L. Thompson and Wanqing Zhang provide description and examples of mixed method research to comprehensively and holistically report of pediatric feeding disorders.
Clinical, Research, Linguistic, and Technical Considerations in Telepractice
Event Date: 6/20/2021
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This activity presents a variety of topics related to telepractice service provision. The first article offers a case study on the effects of a hybrid telepractice/onsite treatment program for a child who stutters. The following article discusses common technical issues encountered during telepractice and a process for managing them with English- and Spanish-speaking clients. The final article details the findings of a study on integrating technology through telepractice to support clients with dementia.
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Contemporary Issues: Augmentative & Alternative Communication Service Provision
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 12 Perspectives articles provide information on current issues associated with display design and image complexity for individuals with cortical visual impairment and an in-depth overview of telepractice for people who rely on augmentative and alternative communication. Readers will be more adept at assessing and assisting children with cortical visual impairment and will have a better understanding of telepractice methods that can be used to improve virtual service delivery.
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Epidemiology and Boothless Audiology Service Delivery
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 8 Perspectives articles focus on topics that are important in promoting public health audiology. In “Fundamentals of Epidemiology for the Audiologist,” Torre and Reavis provide an overview of basic epidemiologic concepts including study design, prevalence, incidence, risk ratios, and odds ratios. The authors emphasize that an understanding of epidemiology is crucial for audiologists for a variety of reasons, including to help them assess the quality of publications, evaluate and discuss the efficacy of screening methods, and evaluate and communicate risk factors for ear and hearing problems. In “Hearing Health Care Delivery Outside the Booth,” Gates, Hecht, Grantham, Fallon, and Martukovich review the literature on boothless audiometry and introduce current tools used to deliver hearing health care outside of the traditional clinic setting. From their review, the authors conclude that boothless audiometry technology provides an opportunity for audiologists to expand services to nontraditional settings such as waiting grooms and nursing homes, increasing access to care, early identification, and intervention, and therefore improving health outcomes.
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Patient-Centered Communication in Audiology
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
How can audiologists enhance patient-centered communication, even during the COVID-19 pandemic? This self-study is from the journal, Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, SIG 7: Auditory Rehabilitation and Its Instrumentation. It features two articles focused on patient-centered strategies for effective communication, from initial consultations to prioritizing follow-up care, during COVID-19. It also includes the article that won the 2021 ASHA Journals Editor’s Award for Perspectives (for SIGs 6, 7, 8, and 9) by Davidson and Marrone. The first article is, “How to Provide Accessible Hearing Health Information to Promote Patient-Centered Care.” Kelly-Campbell and Manchaiah review the literature within audiology on patient-provider communication. They focus on research studies of communication during initial audiology consultation sessions. Through a summary of themes in the literature, they categorize important research findings that provide insight into communication between patients and their audiologists. Finally, they identify five key strategies for effective patient-centered communication. Each strategy is then reviewed in detail, with clinical examples and specific recommendations that can be immediately implemented in practice. The second article is, “A Clinically Valuable Interaction in the Midst of COVID-19 and Beyond: A Viewpoint on the Importance of Patient-Centered Outcomes in Rehabilitative Audiology.” Davidson and Marrone discuss patient-centered communication following hearing aid device fittings. They identify challenges facing patients and audiologists related to follow-up hearing aid services as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on a literature review and their own recent research, they developed a decision-tree algorithm to help audiologists prioritize clinical activities following hearing aid fittings, including remote formats for care. The algorithm was based on use of a patient-centered outcome measure, the Measure of Audiologic Rehabilitation Self-Efficacy. Patient-centered outcomes measurement is suggested as an engagement strategy for continued communication with patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
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Promoting Mental Health for School-Based Speech-Language Pathologists & Students
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
Upon entering into a new school year, this SIG 16 Perspectives activity highlights some of the realities faced by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and their students. Across all articles, readers will learn of the challenges that are all too often experienced by SLPs and our students, as well as recommendations for how to increase satisfaction with school-based positions, reduce burnout, and increase the mental health, representation, and motivation of our students. In the first article, the authors (Amir, Jones, Frankel, & Fritzch) report survey results that found that although school-based SLPs are satisfied with their relationships with students, they continue to experience challenges, especially related to caseload/workload and others’ misunderstanding of the roles and responsibilities of the SLP. This article is followed by a tutorial from Marante and Farquharson, in which they provide tips to address some of these challenges and reduce feelings of burnout and overwhelm, providing helpful checklists in the appendices. In the remaining three articles, authors outline ways for school-based SLPs to further support our students. The first of these articles, by Hoff and Unger, describes how to collaborate with mental health providers to address some of the unique social-emotional needs of students who stutter. Harris and Owen Van Horne, in the subsequent article, address how to include more diverse materials within therapy sessions so that the lived experiences of all students are more accurately portrayed and represented. Lastly, Abendroth and Whited discuss ways to support older students who are transitioning into adulthood, giving readers several ideas for how to increase students’ motivation, further develop rapport, and provide models of problem solving and resiliency.
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Expanding Educational Opportunities in CSD Programs
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this activity, four recent SIG 10 articles are presented. First, Domsch, Stiritz, and Huff utilized a mixed-methods design to examine the cultural awareness of students in communication sciences and disorders (CSD) during and after a study-abroad experience. Next, Franca, Boyer, and Pegoraro-Krook explored activities designed to promote cultural and clinical competence in a collaboration between CSD programs in the United States and Brazil. Then, Veyvoda and Van Cleave reviewed the literature on service-learning and community-engaged learning, described how these approaches could be used in distance-learning modalities, and explored how doing so could be accomplished during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, Towson et al. studied the effectiveness of coaching paired with the use of a mixed-reality simulator as CSD students practiced interprofessional communication skills in role-play scenarios.
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Impact of Allergies on Sleep in Stuttering; Using Solution-Focused Principles
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These articles show the breadth of topics relevant to the understanding and treatment of fluency and fluency disorders. The articles include topics on the impact of allergies on the sleep of children who stutter and using solution-focused principles to elicit perspectives on therapeutic change in older children who stutter and their parents.
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Clinical Considerations for Children and Adults From CLD Backgrounds
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The theme for this Perspectives activity is clinical considerations in assessment of children and adults from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds and providing culturally supporting treatment settings. Topics include (a) acoustic parameters of retroflex sounds, (b) the two-question method for assessing gender identity, (c) assessment recommendations for new language learners, and (d) creating culturally supportive settings to foster literacy development.
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Advances in Hearing Diagnostics, Treatment, & Prevention
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These three articles describe current issues and advances related to hearing diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The first article is a detailed description of the impact that COVID-19 face masks and social distancing regulations have had on speech recognition and how face masks affect the acoustic signal and increase cognitive effort in listeners with hearing loss. Suggestions for mitigating these deleterious impacts on communication are provided. The second article is a research study examining the correlation between self-perceived hearing difficulty, determined using a questionnaire (Adult Auditory Performance Scale), and speech-in-noise performance (Listening in Spatialized Noise–Sentences Test) in listeners with normal pure-tone thresholds. Results highlight the relationship between self-perceived hearing abilities and binaural speech-in-noise performance supporting the inclusion of speech-in-noise testing even in those with normal pure-tone thresholds. The third article is a review of current genetic, stem cell, and pharmacotherapy research for treatment and prevention of hearing loss. Animal models are discussed, as well as steps to translate this research into clinical practice.
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Emotion/Attention Issues & Stuttering: Podcasts, Stereotypes, Covert Stuttering
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This activity is a grouping of studies related to the understanding stuttering throughout the life span. The activity is based on articles related to attentional focus on motor control in people who stutter (PWS) and the relationship to social stress, acoustic measures of emotion in children who stutter, a study of covert stuttering throughout the lifespan, vocational stereotyping of PWS by human resource preprofessionals, and audio-based podcasts to assist in self-help for PWS. Together, these articles investigate important measures in understanding stuttering and how researchers and clinicians can better understand the condition of stuttering.
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Effective Relationships in Supervisory and Work Settings
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 11 Perspectives activity presents two unique articles related to enhancing relationships in supervisory and work settings. The first article highlights specific skills sets required for clinical providers and describes primary performance indicators (PPIs) that are critical to building effective working relationships. In the second article, the authors detail the findings of a study on similarities and differences in work ethic among three generations of speech-language pathologists.
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Clinical Practices for Aphasia
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These SIG 2 articles focus on clinical assessment and practices for individuals with aphasia. Topics covered included challenges associated with diagnosing primary progressive aphasia (PPA) and the impact of adaptive yoga programs for persons with aphasia. First, Aimee Dietz, E. Susan Duncan, Lauren Bislick, Sarah Stegman, Jenna Collins, Chitrali Mamlekar, Rachel Gleason, and Michael J. McCarthy provide an overview of the potential impact adapted yoga programs can have for people with stroke-induced aphasia. Second, Adithya Chandregowda raises awareness about the challenges associated with encountering primary progressive aphasia (PPA) patients in the acute hospital setting.
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Diagnostic Measures for Velopharyngeal Function
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives activity highlights two articles with objective measures for both evaluation and treatment of velopharyngeal dysfunction. The first article discusses the palatal closure efficiency (PaCE) index. This is an aerodynamic tool used to estimate the velopharyngeal opening during certain speech contexts. This is done by measuring a percentage of change between nasal and oral cognates of an individual. The second article describes the nasometer in depth, highlighting its use as an evaluation and treatment tool for decreasing hypernasality. It goes into further detail on the differences between hypernasality and measured nasalance, highlighting both strengths and limitations of the nasalance score.
A Myriad of Dysphagia Interventions: NICU, Cultural Humility, Instrumentation, Nursing, Tracheostomy Tubes, and Technology
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This collection of articles presents clinicians with evidence on a variety of topics in dysphagia that can be utilized in practice immediately. Alaina Martens and Emily Zimmerman offer insight regarding changes to feeding patterns in infants diagnosed with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after prolonged oxygen therapy in the newborn intensive care unit. Paula Leslie and colleagues provide a framework of health and illness and how food and drink are much more. They stress the importance of clinician appreciation as a cultural guest in our patients’ lives. Bonnie Martin-Harris and colleagues stress the importance of instrumentation with a thorough review of available practice guidelines and appropriateness criteria issued to date, revealing a deficit of up-to-date, comprehensive, evidence-based information on the diagnosis and evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Specifically, a lack of quality guidance on the ordering, performance, and reporting of the modified barium swallow study has hindered efforts to improve standardization and ensure quality continuity of care. Naomi Gurevich and colleagues stress the need to clarify guidelines and increase interprofessional education between both professions to improve patient care. George Barnes and Nancy Toms highlight speech-language pathologists’ need for a solid foundation of knowledge when it comes to patients with highly complex disease processes and care plans. Deirdre Muldoon and colleagues conduct a review of published literature regarding management of feeding difficulties at the oral phase of feeding in children with autism spectrum disorder and/or developmental disability. Finally, Paul M. Evitts and colleagues reveal a potential way to track aspiration in healthy adults using an app.
Quality of Life in Communication Among the Elderly
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
Three articles have been grouped, all centering around quality of life: at end of life, following a stroke, and among individuals with voice disorders. In “Facilitating End-of-Life Interaction Between Patients With Severe Communication Impairment and Their Families,” the authors acknowledge the work that has been done previously and recently in outlining the role of the speech-language pathologist in dysphagia and communication at end of life. One case study is presented, which describes an end-of-life scenario following a stroke. Post–case study review, the authors include reflections, counseling points for clinicians related to the case study, and counseling points in the form of a handout that could be used as a resource for clinicians. Given that existing research on the impacts of stroke is primarily conducted within a 5-year period following the stroke, the authors of “Quality of Life Following Stroke: A Qualitative Study Across 30 Years” seek to understand the long-term effects. They draw data from 28 years of journals that were kept by the participant and conduct semistructured family interviews. The authors draw four themes from the data—family support, faith, personality, and journaling—as having influence over the participant’s long-term experience poststroke. Within the discussion, the authors examine the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Factors and the participant’s experience through the lens of the resilience theory. Among aging individuals, voice disorders (including presbyphonia) are commonly reported—however, treated less proportionately. “Perceived Voice Disorders in Older Adults and Impact on Social Interactions” uses a cross-sectional investigation approach by examining the findings of three assessments on 332 community dwelling individuals aged 60 and older. The authors conclude that voice disorders increase with age and, conversely, social interactions requiring communication decrease among individuals with voice disorders. As a result, health-care professionals are encouraged to educate older individuals on how and why to seek management of a voice disorder by a speech-language pathologist or qualified medical professional.
Progressive Topics for Consideration: Ageism, Systems of Oppression in Geriatrics, and Health Disparities
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
Three progressive cultural topics are examined as they relate to speech-language pathology and audiology. Because negative feelings toward the elderly can result in adverse effects in healthcare settings, in “Ageism Among Graduate Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders: A Longitudinal Analysis,” Heape et al. tested 80 graduate students in speech-language pathology to determine the presence and level of ageism using the Fraboni Scale of Ageism. They conclude that positive impacts could be gained by development of graduate curriculum that encompasses all age groups, including the elderly. In “Systems of Oppression in Geriatric Clinical Service Delivery,” Kendall builds on previous work related to forms of oppression by defining institutional, symbolic, and individual systems of oppression. Additionally, she provides clinical examples specific to working in communication sciences disorders settings and suggestions as to how clinicians can disrupt oppression in the workplace. In “The Complexity of Health Disparities: More Than Just Black–White Differences,” Ellis and Jacobs bring health disparities back to light given the recent findings from 2020 indicating that Hispanic and African Americans are more than twice as likely to die from COVID-19 than White Americans. They provide definitions, review vulnerable populations and the interaction between social determinants and health disparities, and provide suggestions on how to achieve equity.
Education, Considerations, and Techniques in Gender Affirming Voice Care
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In this series of articles, the need for clear guidelines in graduate education on the topic of transgender voice and communication is explored through an e-survey. Considerations for culturally competent voice care is presented in the context of two case studies. Case studies are also used to highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary gender affirming approach for successful voice care with adolescence. In the final article, a voice technique is adapted for voice masculinization.
Communication Choice and Agency: Thinking Beyond  Spoken Language for Individuals on the Autism  Spectrum
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives activity focuses on communication choice and agency for individuals on the autism spectrum. These individuals are the key informants in decisions around the conceptualization, implementation, and evaluation of educational programming for autistic learners. Speaking autistic adults encourage families, professionals, and society to promote and accept all communication as equal.
Language and Literacy Intervention Topics for Children  With Hearing Loss and Deafness
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This activity includes two articles related to language and literacy intervention for children with hearing loss and deafness. In the first article, Stephanie Mary Raymond and Tring D. Spencer investigate the effect of narrative language intervention on the narrative retelling skills and vocabulary use of children with hearing loss. In the second article, Krystal L. Werfel and Sarah Lawrence describe specific considerations for print-referencing interventions for children with hearing loss along with a case study. The respective authors conclude that print referencing, with specific considerations for children with hearing loss, may be an effective emergent literacy intervention to increase conceptual print knowledge for children preschool-age with hearing loss; and narrative intervention is promising for facilitating language skills improvement for children with hearing loss. Both studies require replication for their findings.
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Childhood Maltreatment Consequences on Social Pragmatic and Literacy Skills
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This activity focuses on the childhood maltreatment consequences on social pragmatic communication. Based on a complex family and social conception of neglect, a logical model illustrating public health services for children experiencing neglect is proposed. The role of speech-language pathology in prevention, policy, and practice is outlined. The importance of assessing the narrative language of children exposed to complex trauma is also emphasized.
Novelty in School-Based Evaluation, Treatment, and Roles
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This SIG 16 Perspectives activity highlights novel approaches to eligibility decision-making, intervention, and the roles and responsibilities of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). In the first article, the authors present a novel approach to evaluation and eligibility. Farquharson, Coleman, Moore, and Montgomery showcase how SLPs can utilize and apply a design thinking framework when making eligibility recommendations for children with oral and written language disorders. The authors give two sample eligibility predicaments and give examples of five design thinking questions (discovery, interpretation, ideation, experimentation, evolution) for each scenario. In the second article, we learn about a novel approach to intervention. Here, Page and Johnson provide a summary of electropalatographic therapy for the remediation of speech sound disorders. They also systematically reviewed the literature to summarize the extent to which this intervention technique is supported for use with children with Down syndrome. Lastly, the last group of authors discuss novel roles and responsibilities that school-based SLPs may assume. In this article, Seal and Power-deFur discuss the similarities and differences between a fact witness and an expert witness, while also providing school-based professionals with ideas of how to prepare for these roles if called to testify in a special education dispute or civil litigation case.
Speech Science Views and News
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This activity presents a diverse perspective, including four different speech science articles focused on a variety of topics. Kimball and Sayce discuss the pros and cons of research using behavior and functional assessment and treatment in the areas of speech science and voice, specifically their limitation in outlining etiology or explaining treatment resistance. They also provide an overview of genetic research approaches as a possible path forward to develop additional evidence-based treatment approaches. Neel reviews the production and perception of extralinguistic information regarding sex/gender, sexual orientation, age, non-native accent, regional and social dialect, and race and ethnicity. The article explores the literature in the above areas reviewing acoustical features and common misperceptions, concluding with instructional activities to enhance student awareness of indexical characteristics. McAllister et al. studied the effects of biofeedback for residual rhotic errors in a preliminary case series. Participants were five native English speakers who had not yet generalized rhotic production. Treatment consisted of either electropalatographic or visual-acoustic biofeedback using the Challenge Point Program software. Although participant responses to treatment were variable, the median effect size tended to exceed the minimum value considered clinically significant. Gritsyk et al. examined three measures to determine which best predicted change in production accuracy during a vowel learning task. Using 20 female college students, researchers administered three tasks: an oral stereognosis task, a bite block task using auditory making, and a new phonetic awareness task. The bite block task with auditory masking, measuring proprioceptive awareness, was the only task significantly related to performance in speech learning.
Assessment and Treatment of Social Language Deficits in School-Aged Students
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives activity focuses on the assessment and treatment of school age students with social language deficits. The first article defines three different conversational profiles for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)and discusses intervention strategies appropriate for students within each of the profiles. The second article analyzes the benefit of using analog tasks (i.e., tasks that represent real-life social tasks) with toddlers through adolescents to evaluate social communication abilities and guide intervention. The third article aims to provide support for best practices in assessing students with social communication deficits, as determined by results of a survey of speech-language pathologists’ current methods and approaches. The final article examines how effective commercially available standardized tests are for evaluating the social and pragmatic language deficits of students with social pragmatic communication disorder within and separate from ASD.
Dysphagia & Auditory Matters in Geriatric Speech-Language Pathology
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
One dysphagia article is contained within, which contains significant emphasis on person-centered care and quality of life for the person with a swallowing disorder. Fazakerly and Nativ aim to assess the utility of thickened liquids for patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. The authors feel that thickening of liquids may pose serious implications and potential consequences that should not be discounted, and they posit that careful patient selection is recommended as well as balancing both a patient’s physical welfare and quality of life. Two auditory articles are also contained within, both with significant emphasis on the intersection of cognition and hearing impairment. Gottschalk and Olson examine the importance of audiologists’ familiarity with cognitive impairment and cognitive screening practices so that they can assist in identifying cognitive impairment when assessing and treating hearing impairment. Gurevich et al. look at the reverse of the former article: the importance of hearing screenings for individuals who are diagnosed with dementia.
Clinical Considerations for Clients From CLD Backgrounds
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives issue focuses on clinical considerations for working with children and adults from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds. Topics presented include (a) effects of clear speech on perceptions of accentedness in American English, (b) ethnographic interviewing in clinical practice, (c) language errors in bilinguals under background noise and quiet conditions, and (d) assessment of speech sound disorders in school-aged children from CLD backgrounds.
Structural Anomalies Related to Cleft and Craniofacial Conditions
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 5) articles focus on the functional problems caused by the structural anomalies of the craniofacial complex and pathways for intervention. Articles describes the impact of submucous cleft palate, dental/skeletal anomalies, and distraction osteogenesis on speech and resonance outcomes for individuals with craniofacial anomalies. Multidisciplinary roles and best practice recommendations are also provided.
The Impact of Hearing Loss on Language and Literacy
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives forum focuses on the reading outcomes of students with hearing loss and cochlear implants. The first article examines the role of vocabulary on print knowledge for students with hearing loss. The second article provides recommendations for treating the listening and spoken language skills of students with hearing loss based on the results of a 2-year study. The third article compares how reading ability and working memory are impacted in students with cochlear implants and hearing aids after they participated in a computer-based program. The final article explores the relationship between language and reading ability in students with hearing impairment.
Value-Based Health Care Relating to Management of Dysphagia
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This collection of articles presents clinicians with information on an exciting variety of topics, all very currently relevant to caring for patients. Firstly, Cara Donohue and James L. Coyle, and Christina Kang and David Lott, share service delivery focusing on the diagnoses of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and muscle tension dysphagia, respectively. Samantha Shune and Ashwini Namasivayam provide systematic strategies to better support patients’ informal caregivers. Rinki Varindani Desai and Ashwini Namasivayam-MacDonald describe the practice patterns of speech-language pathologists managing dysphagia in persons with dementia. Lastly, Nancy Swigert and Ashley Wright describe effectiveness and efficiency as the key components of a value-based health-care system.
Interprofessional Practice in an International World: 2020
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
First, Krishnan, Sundaram, Sreekumar, Thammaiah, and Mitra describe the development and execution of the Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences in India service learning study abroad program. It includes the perspectives of the faculty leader from the United States and of the faculty and staff from the community partner organizations in India. In the next article, Ramkissoon and Pillay discuss service learning and audiology services in Africa. They highlight health professions engaging in service learning via international humanitarian health care or study abroad programs toward an improved sense of civic responsibility, an aspect that has been inadequately analyzed in hearing health care. Then, Gill, Peele, and Wainscott review the progress made in the treatment and education of persons with disabilities in Zambia, identifying barriers that have hindered change, initiatives that have facilitated positive changes, and initial steps toward the establishment of the profession of speech-language pathology. Despite the challenges of limited resources, understanding of disabilities, and cultural and social barriers, many policies have been adopted and laws passed to protect the rights of those with disabilities. Finally, ASHA Past President Elise Davis-McFarland concludes with a pivotal article, “Ethics in International Practice.” The author states that there is a lack of credible information on the number of people in Majority World countries who have communication and swallowing disorders, but there is evidence of a need for communication therapy services in those countries. She discusses the requirements for the exercise of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice in international practices as well as considering the relationship between cultural authenticity and ethically provided services. The author also reviews the codes of ethics of several Majority World and Minority World speech-language therapy associations and their requirements for the ethical practices that must be adhered to beyond their members’ national borders.
Vestibular and Balance Rehabilitation
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
For people experiencing dizziness, what are possible options for vestibular and balance rehabilitation? This self-study from Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups (SIG 7) addresses treatment choices in vestibular and balance rehabilitation, the state of the evidence on their efficacy, and future directions for interdisciplinary research and practice. Written by clinicians and scholars with expertise in audiology and physical therapy, the four articles present an interdisciplinary and life span approach to vestibular and balance rehabilitation for children and adults. The first article by Christy is on the use of vestibular and balance rehabilitation therapy for dizziness in children. Next, the review by Herdman focuses on the evolution of vestibular function tests and rehabilitation for major vestibular disorders as well as areas in which research and clinical practice may grow in the future. In Holmberg, the relatively new but common diagnosis of persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) is presented in terms of its pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment protocols. Finally, Clendaniel provides a review on the use of vestibular rehabilitation in the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Included are detailed photos and illustrations of current techniques and exercises. As described in the introduction to the forum by Guest Editor Neil Shepard, PhD, “It is hoped that these four articles will provide a needed look at vestibular and balance rehabilitation therapy (VBRT) so the audiologist can serve as a productive member of the treatment team and have a good understanding as to everything that
Current Issues in Augmentative & Alternative Communication Service Provision
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 12) articles provide information on an assortment of current issues in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) service provision. Specific topics include discussions regarding preparation and training of speech-language pathologists and other stakeholders in the AAC field as well as information regarding culturally competent assessment and intervention. In addition, literacy acquisition using video visual scene displays is introduced and information regarding image color in AAC displays is provided.
Unique Current Issues in Dysphagia Management
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This collection of articles presents clinicians with information on some of the most timesensitive topics in dysphagia care of utmost relevance, particularly in the current COVID- 19 pandemic. Firstly, Liza Blumenfeld, Lisa Evangelista, Maggie Kuhn, Kristen Linnemeyer, Nogah Nativ-Zeltzer, and Heather Starmer provide best practice recommendations on the management of patients with head and neck cancers from the speech-language pathology perspective amid COVID-19. Authors Hema Desia and Jennifer Raminick then provide recommendations for safer feeding of infants on high flow oxygen therapy due to acute respiratory failure. Lastly, authors Grainne Brady and Justin Roe, Kellyn Hall and Leslie Johnson, and Annette Askren and Marnie Kershner discuss different aspects of clinician–patient collaborated dysphagia care delivery models and their impact on successful outcomes.
Assessment and Treatment of Childhood Apraxia of Speech
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
First, Julie Case and Maria Grigos provide a review of speech motor control literature in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and give clinical implications to the assessment and treatment of CAS. Second, Kristen Allison reviews approaches to measuring speech intelligibility in children with motor speech disorders. Third, Tricia McCabe, Donna Thomas, and Elizabeth Murray describe Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment (ReST) as a treatment for CAS. Fourth, Nancy Tarshis, Michelle Winner, and Pamela Crooke explore how communication challenges in CAS impact social competency and how speech motor challenges impact social development. Finally, Nina Benway and Jonathan Preston evaluate if features of CAS in the literature could be replicated in a sample of school-age children. Readers will describe how speech motor skills have been found to change with practice in CAS, list the linguistic factors that can influence intelligibility, describe the quality of the research that supports ReST, explain ways to consider social cognition in therapy for CAS, and rank the speech features that distinguish the narrow phonetic transcriptions of children with CAS and speech sound disorders.
Classroom Participation and Reading in Deaf or Hard-of- Hearing Children
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This exercise highlights three articles. First, a qualitative research study with multiple high school student participants with deafness/hearing loss examining factors that promoted versus challenged their access to classroom communication and participation is included. The next article is a preliminary study exploring that children with reading impairments are more likely to fail hearing screenings that children with typical reading skills. Finally, the third article looks at shared book reading and its association with language growth aspects for children who are deaf and hard of hearing over a 4-week training program related to caregiver knowledge of emergent literacy features
Factors of Graduate and Undergraduate Student Success
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 10) articles explore several issues related to student success. Sylvan, Brock, Perkins, and Garret examine prerequisites required by graduate programs in speech-language pathology across the United States. Roitsch, Murphy, and Raymer investigate the relationship between executive functions and academic outcomes in speech-language pathology graduate students. Richardson, Roberts, and Victor explore ways to predict the clinical success of graduate students studying speechlanguage pathology. Look, Shoemaker, Hoepner, and Blake discover benefits of engaging undergraduate students in research.
Bilingual Fluency/Disfluency in Children and Why Adults Attend Self-Help Groups
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In these Perspectives (SIG 4) articles, two of the articles relate to patterns of disfluency in young bilingual children—one of these two articles adds the patterns of stuttering in young bilingual children that stutter. The third article uses a thematic analysis to help understand why adults who stutter attended self-help groups.
Speech Perception and Production
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives (SIG 19) includes four different speech science articles that focus on speech production, speech perception, or both. Akbari and Aoyama examine epenthetic vowels produced by Persian L2 speakers of English corroborating previous research findings regarding acoustical characteristics of anaptyctic epenthetic vowels—prothetic epenthetic vowels differ from the phonemic vowels they precede. Hitchcock et al. examine speech perception of typical adults, typical children, and children with speech sound disorders, finding that children with speech sound disorders differ as compared to both typical groups. Rong conducted a preliminary examination of the articulatory control of speech and speech-like tasks. The results revealed shared and task-specific articulatory features in speech and speech-like tasks, specifically sharing that alternating motion rate tasks may be more useful for assessing temporal aspects of articulation whereas sequential motion rate tasks may be more useful for assessing spatial aspects of articulation and coordination. Lastly, Boyd-Pratt and Donai review evidence that the high frequency region contains perceptual cues regarding segmental, speaker identity, and speaker sex as well as improved speech recognition in the presence of noise.
Clinical Approaches and Practices for the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
First, Katie Strong and Barbara Shadden provide an overview of the relationship between narrative, identity, and social co-construction for persons with aphasia and narrative treatment approaches for identity renegotiation. Second, Jamie Azios and Jack Damico relate the Lifetime Participation Approach to Aphasia (LPAA) and issues in longterm care (LTC) along with practice recommendations for implementing LPAA in LTC. Third, Jerry Hoepner and Tom Sather examine the potential approaches for teaching and mentoring students in LPAA. Fourth, Rochelle Cohen-Schneider, Melodie Chan, Denise McCall, Allison Tedesco, and Ann Abramson explore balancing relationshipcentered care and professionalism. Finally, Sarah Wallace, Elena Donoso Brown, Anna Saylor, Erica Lapp, and Joanna Eskander describe aphasia-friendly modifications for occupational therapy assessments and home programs.
School Age Identification and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 2) articles focus on approaches for early identification, service delivery, and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the first article, Juliet Haarbauer-Drupa and Michael Brink describe the existing literature on preschool children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and illustrate a model of care for a community. Next, Lori Cook, Nellie Caulkins, and Sandra Chapman explore the potential for cognitive training delivered via telepractice to enhance cognitive performance after mild TBI in adolescence. Lastly, Mary Kennedy offers an update on the evidence the provides possible explanations for speech-language pathologists’ experiences while implementing a coaching approach with college students with TBI.
Clinical Applications of Vestibular Scientific Advancements in Specialized Populations
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 6) articles describe current research, diagnostic, and management techniques for three different vestibular populations, including individuals with Usher Syndrome, Meniere’s Disease, and aging populations. The first article examines age-related changes in vestibular function and discusses findings in animal studies examining specific structural and functional changes occurring within the system. The second article is a review designed to advance understanding of the clinical presentation of individuals with Usher Syndrome and discuss the importance of a multi-disciplinary team in diagnosis and management. Additionally, the latest research in gene-therapy treatments for Usher Syndrome are discussed. The final article is a large scale retrospective study of patients with an active Meniere’s Disease diagnosis. The study examines correlations between disease duration and diagnostic assessment findings.
Ethical Considerations for Voice and Upper Airway Clinicians
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 3) articles address ethical considerations for voice and upper airway clinicians. Speech language pathologists are responsible to conduct clinical and business activities ethically, legally, and with a high level of integrity. Billing questions and reimbursement issues that often arise related to ever-changing insurance regulations and Medicare guidelines will be addressed. Additionally, factors that guide ethical decision-making to determine what comprises medically necessary voice therapy that involves or targets singing voice will be presented.
Telepractice Establishment, Ethics, and Evidence
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 18) articles present information on various aspects of telepractice, including ethics and telepractice, a guide for establishing remote services in private practice, and a systematic review of telepractice for adult speech-language pathology services.
Clinical and Research Topics in  Audiology and Public Health
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 8) articles cover a wide range of audiology and public health research and clinical topics. There are three original research reports and one clinical review. In the first research report, Roman et al. examine the impact of reduced audibility and speaker voice on the mini-mental state examination score in a group of young adults without cognitive impairment. Next, Beamer et al. conduct a preliminary study to investigate the role of a hearing loss prevention education strategies in an active duty military population. Reavis et al. estimate the association between tinnitus and self-reported depression symptoms and between tinnitus and perceived anxiety in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. The final article by Henry and Manning is a review article on sound therapy approaches and clinical options for tinnitus management.
Considerations for Academic and Clinical  Training in Craniofacial Anomalies
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 5) articles focus on the status of academic and clinical training related to cleft and craniofacial conditions, a module training series for addressing the gaps in current educational roadmaps, and resources and best practice recommendations are provided.
Perception, Technology, and Clinical Applications
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 19) articles focus on perceptual considerations and the use of a system to investigate lingual coordination as a clinical tool. In the first article Rakerd et al. review the resonant effects of performers, resonance associated with nasality, and resonant voice for both normal and disordered populations. In the second article Grover et al. use the bubble noise method, which places noise randomly in time and frequency with “holes” or “bubbles” that give glimpses into the target signal, to determine what is perceptually important in the speech signal for native/first language listeners versus nonnative/second language listeners. In the final article, Dugan et al. review TonguePART, an image processing system used to track the tongue surface, as a reliable, fast method to track articulatory movement of the tongue for syllables
Dementia, Student Supervision,  and the Patient Driven Groupings Model
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 15) articles discuss issues related to dementia care, student supervision, and the home health patient driven groupings model. Warren describes the rational for the development of a new payment system, how it will be changing, and what speech-language pathologists can do to be prepared and successfully navigate the transition. Davies explores the relating concepts of participation and communication in dementia care research and to propose future avenues of research within the field of communication disorders. Bice and Smith discuss current issues found in external clinical placements, their possible causes, and offers practical solutions for assisting students to benefit from their experiences.
Voice and Laryngeal Manifestations of Autoimmune Diseases
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives (SIG 3) article provides a thorough review of the literature regarding autoimmune disease and effects on voice and laryngeal function. To maximize patient outcomes, guidelines for differential diagnosis and referral patterns are highlighted.
Autism in Early Childhood
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives (SIG 1) forum focuses on the treatment of young children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. The first article examines the effects of parent-mediated intervention on the spoken language of young children. The second article focuses on an embedded teacher-implemented social communication intervention for preschoolers. The third article examined peer mediated augmentative and alternative communication for young minimally verbal children. The final article reported on social communication predictors of successful inclusion experiences for students with autism in an early childhood lab school.
Heritage Language Transmission and Community Engagement
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 14) articles focus on learning about variables and challenges that impact heritage language transmission and incorporating student engagement into the local community as part of cultural diversity training in a communication disorders curriculum. Topics include (a) examining variables that contribute to heritage language transmission in Texas, and (b) increasing student awareness of cultural linguistic diversity within the local communities in and around the Los Angeles, CA area.
Student Stress, Emotional Intelligence, Applying to Graduate School, and Doctoral Training
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In these Perspectives (SIG 10) Roos and Schreck examine the stress experienced by undergraduate students in communication sciences and disorders (CSD), including stress levels, reasons for stress, stress management, and knowledge/use of campus resources to address stress. Shah and Galantino address building the emotional intelligence of undergraduate students studying CSD through exercises completed in class. Sylvan, Perkins, and Tuglio study the experiences and perceptions of CSD students applying to master’s degree programs, including deciding factors for top choices of graduate programs, emotional involvement in the application process, biases/rumors heard, student challenges, advice to future applicants, and what students would change about the application process. Finally, Crais and Savage present an examination of CSD graduates’ perceptions of their PhD program, including challenges they faced, facilitators for success, their preparation for research/teaching/job readiness, and ways PhD education might be improved.
Graduate Education and Ethics in School-Based Practice
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 16) articles focus on ethical issues and describe considerations for the development of clinical skills in school-based settings. Readers will reflect upon and learn to resolve common ethical dilemmas, review a model of graduate mentoring from the lens of implementation science, and learn about commonly reported factors that both supervisors and graduate students believe critical within successful school-based internship experiences.
Collaboration in Language, Literacy, and Dysphagia
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 16) articles address strategies for working alongside, as well as teaching others, to improve preschool to middle school students’ performance in language, literacy, social skills, and feeding/swallowing abilities, as well as learn how others perceive speech-language pathologists’ efforts in some of these areas.
Palliative Care Perspective on Dysphagia Management
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 13) presents clinicians with information across many aspects of feeding and swallowing. Firstly Kendrea Garand, Taylor Thomas, and Rajarshi Dey discuss the physiology of laterality in the clearance of boluses from the pharynx. Next, Jennifer Wilson, Amanda Simmons, and Jillian McCarthy then take us through an interesting description of speech-language pathologists’ experiences and education in pediatric dysphagia and encourage the incorporation of intensive education in this high-risk topic, via various avenues. In the final three articles, Pamela Smith, Jinxu Bridget Xia, and Claire Radford et al., present an in-depth and elaborate perspective on managing patients with dysphagia through a palliative care lens, across the lifespan.
Developmental Language Disorder/Specific Language Impairment Terminology in Practice
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives (SIG 1) forum focuses on developmental language disorder (DLD), including the history of terminology changes in the field, the relationship of specific language impairment and DLD, diagnostic criteria in the field of speech language pathology, and an examination of DLD through a school-based lens.
Dysphagia and Continuum of Care
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 13) include a variety of topics in dysphagia across the age continuum and across the many settings that speech-language pathologists (SLPs) address dysphagia. Parker Huston, Robert Dempster, and Lauren Garbacz provide readers with an overview of common evidence-based psychological techniques used in the treatment of adolescents with feeding disorders, including motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral techniques. The goal of this paper is to provide a high-level overview of these concepts so that providers outside of psychology may utilize some of these techniques in therapy, when referral to a behavioral specialist or psychologist is not feasible. Next, authors Lauren Madhoun and Robert Dempster discuss the psychosocial aspects of feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit NICU and immediately following NICU discharge. Joanne Patterson extends the discussion to the adult population by describing a biopsychosocial intervention that combines cognitive behavioral with dysphagia therapy, termed Cognitive-Behavioral Enhanced Swallowing Therapy (CB-EST) and its application in managing head and neck cancer patients with dysphagia. Finally, authors Kortney Eng, Maria Jose Flores, Elisabeth Gerrity, Nupur Sinha, Katherine Imbeau, Laddie Erbele, and Cary Yeh share details from their study investigating the effect of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on swallow physiology in healthy adults. We hope these articles will be of significant value to practicing clinicians and to students learning about dysphagia.
Assessment and Treatment Approaches for Dysphagia Management Across the Lifespan
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 13) articles present clinicians with useful information to help assess and treat feeding and swallowing disorders in a variety of patient populations across the lifespan. Daniel Croake and Vrushali Angadi provide an overview of evidence regarding prophylactic and reactive gastrostomy tubes in individuals with head and neck cancer, to better facilitate joint decision-making of percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) tube timing with the patient and care team. Hema Desai and Audrey Lim extend the discussion to pediatric dysphagia by summarizing the application of neurobehavioral interventions as part of feeding treatment for infants with congenital heart defects.
Outlining the Use of Strategic Questioning and Applying the Code of Ethics
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 11) articles outline the use of strategic questioning methods to stimulate students' critical thinking and other higher order thinking skills. In addition, the Code of Ethics is discussed as it relates to supervisory experiences across various settings.
History and Collaborative Efforts in  the International Cluttering Association
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 17) articles present a collaborative initiative of the Committee of International Representatives of the International Cluttering Association. Reichel et al., discuss the initiative that began with the Inaugural Joint World Congress in Japan in 2018. Van Zaalen and Reichel present and discuss the auditory-visual feedback training methodology. Gosselin and Ward affirm that cluttering is a fluency disorder that is mainly characterized by an abnormally rapid or irregular rate of speech. Their pilot study expanded the evidence base by using a Stroop Task to investigate attention performance in people with cluttering. Hilda Sønsterud discuss the term working alliance as an important concept in cluttering and stuttering therapy and describe the degree to which the therapy dyad is engaged in collaborative, purposive work.
Global Initiatives: Considerations for Best Practice
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 17) articles discuss different aspects of international practice, including work with immigrant and refugee families. Baigorri, Crowley, and Bukari provide a service delivery model for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and professionals working in low-and middle-income countries. Chakraborty, Schwarz, and Vaughan discuss a major consideration for ASHA to cultivate cultural sensitivity and competence in its largely female (95.30%), monolingual (93.46%) and white (92.10%) workforce. Chu et al., discuss the challenges that SLPs face when providing speech and language therapy in Malaysia and issues that need to be addressed for continued growth of this profession. Maldonado, Ashe, Bubar, and Chapman explore the experiences of monolingual, American, English-speaking SLPs and Clinical Fellows who worked with immigrant and refugee families within a preschool context. Staley et al., consider the literature on international student placements to contextualize and describe a 10-year relationship which enabled speech language pathology students in their final year of study at a Canadian university to complete a 10-week clinical placement with a non-governmental organization in Kenya.
Use of Technology to Assess  Speech Production and Voice
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 19) articles provide with information relevant to speech science research and education. Lulich and Pearson present two demonstrations in this technical report to illustrate the utility of 3D/4D ultrasound technology. First, the authors report that “not only can structures be imaged which previously were impossible to identify from 2D ultrasound alone (e.g., piriform sinuses and posterior pharyngeal wall), but questions involving non-sagittal structures and asymmetrical tongue shapes, such as the pervasiveness and extensiveness of lateral contact between the tongue and the palate-teeth, can now be addressed non-invasively.” Second, they also conclude that “the fusion of ultrasound data with MRI images further enhances the utility of 3D/4D ultrasound, since it combines the strengths of ultrasound with the complementary strengths of the other modality, while mitigating the weaknesses of each.” Richardson et al., compare various acoustical measures of sustained vowels obtained using the Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) by Computerized Speech Lab, Praat, and TF32. Results show that the MDVP yield significantly higher values of standard deviation of fundamental frequency, jitter, and shimmer, and significantly lower values of noise-to-harmonics ratio compared to the other programs. They discuss the variation of numerical values across programs and the resulting clinical implications. Hagedorn et al. discuss the benefits of a collaboration among engineers, speech scientists, and clinicians which yield “the development of biologically inspired technology that has been proven useful for both small- and large-scale analysis,” a better understanding of speech production, and the development of assessment tools with a clinical benefit and interdisciplinary reach. They also review the use of real-time magnetic resonance imaging across clinical populations and discuss the challenges associated with collaborative work. Lee and Fischer reveal an association between acoustic vowel space and the severity of dysarthria. They review sex differences, factors that may affect formant-related measures, and clinical implications.
An Intergenerational Cognitive Training Program
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives (SIG 15) article discusses the benefits and nuances of development of an intergenerational cognitive social media training program. The program supports the use of a cognitive social media training tool to promote intergenerational learning, communication, and stimulation, with parallel benefits for young and older adults.
Issues in the School Setting
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 16) addresses important issues for the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in working in the school setting, including assessing bilingual students, grammar interventions for school-aged students, the comfort level of SLPs when working with students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and the impact of professional development on literacy knowledge and practice.
Evaluation and Management of Challenging Patient  Populations in Audiology
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 6) articles focus on diagnostic tools and considerations for management of several challenging patient populations in audiology. The first article discusses utilizing magnetic resonance imaging to determine the functional and structural neural alterations associated with chronic tinnitus. Researchers are utilizing advanced imaging techniques to study variability in perceptual characteristics and reaction to tinnitus. The second article discusses the continuum of disorders known as “cortical hearing impairment,” supported by a comprehensive summary of clinical presentations. Despite its rarity, an audiologist must understand etiologies of cortical hearing impairment and know how to evaluate and characterize the accompanied hearing difficulty. The third article examines the effects of concussion of the vestibular system and presented an assessment battery for athletes postconcussion and for determining return to play.
Clinical and Research Topics in Supervision
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 11) articles outlined how using real-time digital recordings of student sessions can support students' ability to self-evaluate, collect data, and prepare for therapy; provided data regarding the use of low-level vs. high-level questions with first- and final-year graduate students; and described a pilot project involving observation-based formative assessment tools for faculty use during clinical supervision.
Clinical Topics in Audiology and Public Health
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 8) articles cover a wide range of audiology and public health topics. Konrad-Martin and colleagues promote effective and standardized coding and third payer billing practices for the audiological management of symptomatic ototoxicity. The article includes relevant ICD-10-CM codes and CPT codes. Myers and Dundas provide a review of the effects of noise on the vestibular system. They note that temporary and permanent effects of noise on the vestibular system have been reported and advocate for further investigations to unpack the complex relationship between the auditory and vestibular systems. Finally, Pletnikova and colleagues conducted a quality initiative project to determine the feasibility and reliability of a tablet-based portable audiometer to identify hearing loss in a cognitively impaired population.
Improving Patient Safety and Patient-Provider Communication: A Clinical Forum
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 12) articles provide an introduction to and description of the rationale for implementation of augmentative alternative communication/assistive technology (AAC/AT) in acute care settings. Barriers associated with implementation of AAC/AT in acute care settings are identified and discussed. Data regarding use of the Noddle, a specific access and communication option, are presented and discussed. A series of case studies illustrate potential solutions to a wide range of both patient-specific and institutional implementation problems.
Cultural Competence, Adult Bilingual Fluency, and LGBTQ Clients
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 14) articles topics include (a) the effects of an experiential learning opportunity on undergraduates’ cultural competence; (b) a description of an LGBTQ content module that can be integrated into coursework on cultural and linguistic diversity; and (c) fluency strategies for treating bilingual adults who stutter.
Pediatric Auditory Brainstem Implants, Adult Single-Sided Deafness, and Teaching
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 9) articles include topics on evidence, research, and application about pediatric auditory brainstem implants, teaching phonological awareness in young children, and development of The Assessment and Aural Rehabilitation Tool for single-sided deafness in adults.
Issues in Fluency and Fluency Disorders
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 4) covered a diverse area of topics as they related to fluency and fluency disorders, including word-final disfluencies, social support, behavioral and affective comparisons of people who stutter, school participation by children who stutter, and leadership and childhood responses to a public attitudes about stuttering survey.
Topics in Aural Rehabilitation
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 7) articles address therapy, patient education/counseling, and novel eHealth programs to serve clients across the lifespan. The topic of multisensory integration is addressed with a review of cognitive neuroscience literature and recommendations are made for therapy protocols for infants and children with hearing loss. There is a review of the development and outcomes of a multimedia education program for adults with hearing loss. The use of eHealth in patient-centered care for adults with hearing loss is considered for current practice and its future directions. Authors discuss considerations for the use of remote microphone technology by the oldest generation of patients. Finally, patient-centered strategies for communication during audiology consultations are presented to build trust and positive therapeutic relationships.
Neurobiology of Language
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives (SIG 1) forum focuses on neurobiological factors associated with language learning. The first article describes a model of causation by which environmental factors influence neural and cognitive development. The second article examines learning contexts and their impact on verb learning. The third article discusses early motor deficits and their relationship to speech/language outcomes, and the final article reviews morphological processing in normal and clinical populations.
Interprofessional Education and Integrating Coursework and Clinical Experience
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In these Perspectives (SIG 10) articles, Frazier, Whitby, Kucharczyk, Perryman, Thomas, Koch, and Bengtson focus on interprofessional education (IPE) as it relates to transition planning for students with significant disabilities. Musaji, Self, Marble-Flint, and Kanade examine the use of a translational model as a tool for identifying limitations of IPE research. Benigno, McCarthy, Reese, Wright, and Tewanger introduce a pilot study to examine the goals, outcomes, and skills attained by graduate students while participating in clinical experiences integrated with coursework.
Supporting Morphological Skill Development for  School-Aged Children and Adolescents
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives (SIG 1) forum focuses on supporting students in a school setting in improving morphological skills. Authors discuss key components of intervention, collaboration with other professionals, and practical strategies for clinicians.
AAC Considerations for Neurogenic Communication Disorders
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 2) articles review and present current issues related to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) across different patient populations, as well as identifies and discusses team-based interprofessional practice approaches for managing individuals with complex communication needs within both pediatric and adult populations. In the first article, Shannon Taylor, Sarah Jane Wallace, and Sarah Elizabeth Wallace explore factors that influence successful use of high-technology AAC in persons with poststroke aphasia via a literature review and narrative synthesis methodology. Lori Marra and Katie Micco present a clinical focus article that assesses communication partner’s perception regarding the effectiveness of a training model to support AAC use within a parent–adolescent communication pair. Michelle Westley, Dean Sutherland, and H. Timothy Bunnell examine the experience of healthy voice donors during the ModelTalker voice banking process for New Zealand-accent synthesized voices. Sarah Diehl and Michael de Reisthal describe the complex symptoms associated with Huntington’s disease and how they influence implementation of AAC to address the communication needs of this population. Kristen Abbott-Anderson, Hsinhuei Sheen Chiou, and Brooke N. Burk address interprofessional practice via a multidisciplinary patient-centered engagement experience entitled Spring EngAGEment that serves individuals living with Alzheimer’s disease or other associated dementias. Finally, Laura Hinkes Molinaro, and Wendy Stellpflug discuss a team approach for education and support of patients and families with postoperative pediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome.
Interprofessional Education and Practice SIG 2
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 2) articles evaluate, highlight, and analyze various examples of interprofessional education and collaboration amongst speech-language pathologists and other professionals. Interprofessional educational models, collaborative teaming frameworks, and a case study example are also presented.
Clinical Considerations in Telepractice Service Delivery
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 18) articles include topics on workload strategy for speech and language services in schools; vocal quality change during telepractice interactions and its potential impact on the services offered; a review of audiological interventions through telepractice; and the perspectives of clients who stutter who received treatment through telepractice
Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Other Topics in Dysphagia SIG 13
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 13) articles review the functional anatomy underlying different pharyngeal swallow mechanics and swallowing performance goals, discuss the application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the treatment of dysphagia, and provide critical information to help clinicians build assessment skills and provide evidence-based options for mothers who breastfeed their infants.
Updates on Vocal Fold Paralysis SIG 3
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 3) articles provide a comprehensive update on evaluation and management of unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Multidisciplinary evaluations are addressed in addition to various medical and behavioral treatment options.
High-Resolution Pharyngeal Manometry in Dysphagia SIG 13
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 13) articles discuss the use of high-resolution pharyngeal manometry in the assessment and treatment of dysphagia in pediatrics and adults. Additionally, we present an educational piece discussing considerations in clinical decision-making concerning the initiation of safe oral alimentation in patients on high-flow nasal cannula.
Speech, Surgical, and Psychosocial Considerations for 22Q Deletion Syndrome SIG 5
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 5) articles focus on 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and the associated communication, feeding/swallowing, psychosocial, and surgical factors associated with this condition.
Clinical and Research Implications for School-Based Services SIG 16
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 16) articles address important issues for the speech-language pathologist working in the school setting. Topics include fostering preschoolers’ emergent literacy, supporting children with traumatic brain injury, collaborating with school psychologists, and providing classroom-based services in middle school.
Complex Considerations for Treating Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 1) articles provided an overview of how the core deficits of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) impact reading comprehension, proposed the use of a client-directed model of intervention called social currency, and reviewed characteristics of narrative language that make it a critical context for advanced language development in adolescents with ASD.
Complex Considerations for Speech Sound Disorders in the School Setting
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 1) focus on the complexities of identifying and characterizing speech sound disorder in children and adolescents within the school setting. Articles discuss best practices for selecting tests and using developmental norms and criterionreferenced measures to arrive at more accurate diagnoses. Guidelines for determining eligibility for treatment are addressed, including provisions for social and educational impact, and several clinical scenarios are included.
Clinical and Research Topics in Voice SIG 3
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
These Perspectives (SIG 3) articles provide learners with diverse information including valuable insight on considerations for the role of the speech-language pathologist in working with trans youth, keys to build a successful telepractice, and a review of the electrolarynx (past and present).
Putting Research Into Practice: Tutorials on Clinical Research, Implementation Science, and Evidence-Based Practice
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
In these articles, authors outline how implementation science can aid the advancement of communication sciences and disorders; provide an introduction to patient-reported outcome measures (PRO), the field of health services research, and research-practice partnerships (RPPs); and provide a tutorial for clinicians interested in pursuing quality improvement (QI) practice and research.
Perspectives, SIG 1, Vol. 3, Part 4, 2018
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
The articles focus on language intervention progress monitoring for elementary students and for adolescents specifically while producing narratives and while learning morphologically complex words. The authors also address the psychometric requirements of oral and written language progress monitoring assessments. Research and theory are tied to practical clinical application with specific examples.
Perspectives, SIG 2, Vol. 3, Part 3, 2018
Format(s): SIG Perspectives
This Perspectives addresses a variety of topics related to posterior fossa syndrome in children including an introduction to cerebellar mutism, a review of surgical approaches used for posterior fossa brain tumors, and neuropsychological considerations.

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